1. Data Choices

The Data Choices module collects and publishes anonymous usage statistics to https://stats.opennms.org.

When a user with the Admin role logs into the system for the first time, they will be prompted as to whether or not they want to opt-in to publish these statistics. Statistics will only be published once an Administrator has opted-in.

Usage statistics can later be disabled by accessing the 'Data Choices' link in the 'Admin' menu.

When enabled, the following anonymous statistics will be collected and publish on system startup and every 24 hours after:

  • System ID (a randomly generated UUID)

  • OpenNMS Horizon Release

  • OpenNMS Horizon Version

  • OS Architecture

  • OS Name

  • OS Version

    1. Number of Alarms in the alarms table

    2. Number of Events in the events table

    3. Number of IP Interfaces in the ipinterface table

    4. Number of Nodes in the node table

    5. Number of Nodes, grouped by System OID

2. User Management

Users are entities with login accounts in the OpenNMS Horizon system. Ideally each user corresponds to a person. An OpenNMS Horizon User represents an actor which may be granted permissions in the system by associating Security Roles. OpenNMS Horizon stores by default User information and credentials in a local embedded file based storage. Credentials and user details, e.g. contact information, descriptions or Security Roles can be managed through the Admin Section in the Web User Interface.

Beside local Users, external LDAP service and SSO can be configured, but are not scope in this section. The following paragraphs describe how to manage the embedded User and Security Roles in OpenNMS Horizon.

2.1. Users

Managing Users is done through the Web User Interface and requires to login as a User with administrative permissions. By default the admin user is used to initially create and modify Users. The User, Password and other detail descriptions are persisted in users.xml file. It is not required to restart OpenNMS Horizon when User attributes are changed.

In case administrative tasks should be delegated to an User the Security Role named ROLE_ADMIN can be assigned.

Don’t delete the admin and rtc user. The RTC user is used for the communication of the Real-Time Console on the start page to calculate the node and service availability.
Change the default admin password to a secure password.
How to set a new password for any user
  1. Login as a User with administrative permissions

  2. Choose Configure OpenNMS from the user specific main navigation which is named as your login user name

  3. Choose Configure Users, Groups and On-Call roles and select Configure Users

  4. Click the Modify icon next to an existing User and select Reset Password

  5. Set a new Password, Confirm Password and click OK

  6. Click Finish to persist and apply the changes

How users can change their own password
  1. Login with user name and old password

  2. Choose Change Password from the user specific main navigation which is named as your login user name

  3. Select Change Password

  4. Identify yourself with the old password and set the new password and confirm

  5. Click Submit

  6. Logout and login with your new password

How to create or modify user
  1. Login as a User with administrative permissions

  2. Choose Configure OpenNMS from the user specific main navigation which is named as your login user name

  3. Choose Configure Users, Groups and On-Call roles and select Configure Users

  4. Use Add new user and type in a login name as User ID and a Password with confirmation or click Modify next to an existing User

  5. Optional: Fill in detailed User Information to provide more context information around the new user in the system

  6. Optional: Assign Security Roles to give or remove permissions in the system

  7. Optional: Provide Notification Information which are used in Notification targets to send messages to the User

  8. Optional: Set a schedule when a User should receive Notifications

  9. Click Finish to persist and apply the changes

By default a new User has the Security Role similar to ROLE_USER assigned. Acknowledgment and working with Alarms and Notifications is possible. The Configure OpenNMS administration menu is not available.
How to delete existing user
  1. Login as a User with administrative permissions

  2. Choose Configure OpenNMS from the user specific main navigation which is named as your login user name

  3. Choose Configure Users, Groups and On-Call roles and select Configure Users

  4. Use the trash bin icon next to the User to delete

  5. Confirm delete request with OK

2.2. Security Roles

A Security Roles is a set of permissions and can be assigned to an User. They regulate access to the Web User Interface and the ReST API to exchange monitoring and inventory information. In case of a distributed installation, the Minion or Remote Poller instances interact with OpenNMS Horizon and require specific permissions which are defined in the Security Roles ROLE_MINION and ROLE_REMOTING. The following Security Roles are available:

Table 1. Functions and existing system roles in OpenNMS Horizon
Security Role Name Description

anyone

In case the opennms-webapp-remoting package is installed, any user can download the Java Webstart installation package for the remote poller from http://opennms.server:8980/opennms-remoting/webstart/app.jnlp.

ROLE_ANONYMOUS

Allows HTTP OPTIONS request to show allowed HTTP methods on a ReST resources and the login and logout page of the Web User Interface.

ROLE_ADMIN

Permissions to create, read, update and delete in the Web User Interface and the ReST API.

ROLE_ASSET_EDITOR

Permissions to just update the asset records from nodes.

ROLE_DASHBOARD

Allow users to just have access to the Dashboard.

ROLE_DELEGATE

Allows actions (such as acknowledging an alarm) to be performed on behalf of another user.

ROLE_JMX

Allows retrieving JMX metrics but does not allow executing MBeans of the OpenNMS Horizon JVM, even if they just return simple values.

ROLE_MINION

Minimal amount of permissions required for a Minion to operate.

ROLE_MOBILE

Allow user to use OpenNMS COMPASS mobile application to acknowledge Alarms and Notifications via the ReST API.

ROLE_PROVISION

Allow user to use the Provisioning System and configure SNMP in OpenNMS Horizon to access management information from devices.

ROLE_READONLY

Limited to just read information in the Web User Interface and are no possibility to change Alarm states or Notifications.

ROLE_REMOTING

Permissions to allow access from a Remote Poller instance to exchange monitoring information.

ROLE_REST

Allow users interact with the whole ReST API of OpenNMS Horizon

ROLE_RTC

Exchange information with the OpenNMS Horizon Real-Time Console for availability calculations.

ROLE_USER

Default permissions of a new created user to interact with the Web User Interface which allow to escalate and acknowledge Alarms and Notifications.

How to manage Security Roles for Users:
  1. Login as a User with administrative permissions

  2. Choose Configure OpenNMS from the user specific main navigation which is named as your login user name

  3. Choose Configure Users, Groups and On-Call roles and select Configure Users

  4. Modify an existing User by clicking the modify icon next to the User

  5. Select the Role from Available Roles in the Security Roles section

  6. Use Add and Remove to assign or remove the Security Role from the User

  7. Click Finish to persist and apply the Changes

  8. Logout and Login to apply the new Security Role settings

How to add custom roles
  • Create a file called $OPENNMS_HOME/etc/security-roles.properties.

  • Add a property called roles, and for its value, a comma separated list of the custom roles, for example:

roles=operator,stage
  • After following the procedure to associate the security roles with users, the new custom roles will be available as shown on the following image:

custom roles :imagesdir: ../../images

2.3. Web UI Pre-Authentication

It is possible to configure OpenNMS Horizon to run behind a proxy that provides authentication, and then pass the pre-authenticated user to the OpenNMS Horizon webapp using a header.

The pre-authentication configuration is defined in $OPENNMS_HOME/jetty-webapps/opennms/WEB-INF/spring-security.d/header-preauth.xml. This file is automatically included in the Spring Security context, but is not enabled by default.

DO NOT configure OpenNMS Horizon in this manner unless you are certain the web UI is only accessible to the proxy and not to end-users. Otherwise, malicious attackers can craft queries that include the pre-authentication header and get full control of the web UI and ReST APIs.

2.3.1. Enabling Pre-Authentication

Edit the header-preauth.xml file, and set the enabled property:

<beans:property name="enabled" value="true" />

2.3.2. Configuring Pre-Authentication

There are a number of other properties that can be set to change the behavior of the pre-authentication plugin.

Property Description Default

enabled

Whether the pre-authentication plugin is active.

false

failOnError

If true, disallow login if the header is not set or the user does not exist. If false, fall through to other mechanisms (basic auth, form login, etc.)

false

userHeader

The HTTP header that will specify the user to authenticate as.

X-Remote-User

credentialsHeader

A comma-separated list of additional credentials (roles) the user should have.

3. Administrative Webinterface

3.1. Surveillance View

When networks are larger and contain devices of different priority, it becomes interesting to show at a glance how the "whole system" is working. The surveillance view aims to do that. By using categories, you can define a matrix which allows to aggregate monitoring results. Imagine you have 10 servers with 10 internet connections and some 5 PCs with DSL lines:

Servers Internet Connections

Super important

1 of 10

0 of 10

Slightly important

0 of 10

0 of 10

Vanity

4 of 10

0 of 10

The whole idea is to give somebody at a glance a hint on where the trouble is. The matrix-type of display allows a significantly higher aggregation than the simple list. In addition, the surveillance view shows nodes rather than services - an important tidbit of information when you look at categories. At a glance, you want to know how many of my servers have an issue rather than how many services in this category have an issue.

01 surveillance view
Figure 1. Example of a configured Surveillance View

The visual indication for outages in the surveillance view cells is defined as the following:

  • No services down: green as normal

  • One (1) service down: yellow as warning

  • More than one (1) services down: red as critical

This Surveillance View model also builds the foundation of the Dashboard View.

3.1.1. Default Surveillance View Configuration

Surveillance Views are defined in the surveillance-views.xml file. This file resides in the OpenNMS Horizon etc directory.

This file can be modified in a text editor and is reread every time the Surveillance View page is loaded. Thus, changes to this file do not require OpenNMS Horizon to be restarted.

The default configuration looks like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<surveillance-view-configuration
  xmlns:this="http://www.opennms.org/xsd/config/surveillance-views"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.opennms.org/xsd/config/surveillance-views http://www.opennms.org/xsd/config/surveillance-views.xsd"
  default-view="default" >
  <views >
    <view name="default" refresh-seconds="300" >
      <rows>
        <row-def label="Routers" >
          <category name="Routers"/>
        </row-def>
        <row-def label="Switches" >
          <category name="Switches" />
        </row-def>
        <row-def label="Servers" >
          <category name="Servers" />
        </row-def>
      </rows>
      <columns>
        <column-def label="PROD" >
          <category name="Production" />
        </column-def>
        <column-def label="TEST" >
          <category name="Test" />
        </column-def>
        <column-def label="DEV" >
          <category name="Development" />
        </column-def>
      </columns>
    </view>
  </views>
</surveillance-view-configuration>
Please note, that the old report-category attribute is deprecated and is no longer supported.

3.1.2. Configuring Surveillance Views

The Surveillance View configuration can also be modified using the Surveillance View Configurations editor on the OpenNMS Horizon Admin page.

02 surveillance view config ui
Figure 2. The Surveillance View Configurations UI

This page gives an overview of the configured Surveillance Views and allows the user to edit, remove or even preview the defined Surveillance View. Furthermore, the default Surveillance View can be selected using the checkbox in the DEFAULT column.

When editing a Surveillance View the user has to define the view’s title and the time in seconds between successive refreshes. On the left side of this dialog the defined rows, on the right side the defined columns are listed. Beside adding new entries an user can modify or delete existing entries. Furthermore, the position of an entry can be modified using the up/down buttons.

03 surveillance view config ui edit
Figure 3. Editing a Surveillance View

Editing row or column definitions require to choose an unique label for this entry and at least one OpenNMS Horizon category. When finished you can hit the Save button to persist your modified configuration or Cancel to close this dialog.

3.1.3. Categorizing Nodes

In order to categorize nodes in the Surveillance View, choose a node and click Edit beside Surveillance Category Memberships. Recalling from your Surveillance View, choose two categories that represent a column and a row, for example, Servers and Test, then click Add.

3.1.4. Creating Views for Users and Groups

You can use user and group names for Surveillance Views. When the Surveillance View page is invoked the following criteria selects the proper Surveillance View to be displayed. The first matching item wins:

  1. Surveillance View name equal to the user name they used when logging into OpenNMS Horizon.

  2. Surveillance View name equal to the user’s assigned OpenNMS Horizon group name

  3. Surveillance View name equal to the default-view attribute in the surveillance-views.xml configuration file.

3.2. Dashboard

In Network Operation Centers NOC an overview about issues in the network is important and often described as Dashboards. Large networks have people (Operator) with different responsibilities and the Dashboard should show only information for a given monitoring context. Network or Server operator have a need to customize or filter information on the Dashboard. A Dashboard as an At-a-glance overview is also often used to give an entry point for more detailed diagnosis through the information provided by the monitoring system. The Surveillance View allows to reduce the visible information by selecting rows, columns and cells to quickly limit the amount of information to navigate through.

3.2.1. Components

The Dashboard is built with five components:

  • Surveillance View: Allows to model a monitoring context for the Dashboard.

  • Alarms: Shows unacknowledged Alarms which should be escalated by an Operator.

  • Notifications: Shows outstanding and unacknowledged notifications sent to Engineers.

  • Node Status: Shows all ongoing network Outages.

  • Resource Graph Viewer: Shows performance time series reports for performance diagnosis.

The following screenshot shows a configured Dashboard and which information are displayed in the components.

01 dashboard overall
Figure 4. Dashboard with configured surveillance view and current outage

The following section describe the information shown in each component. All other components display information based on the Surveillance View.

Surveillance View

The Surveillance View has multiple functions.

  • Allows to model the monitoring context and shows service and node Outages in compact matrix view.

  • Allows to limit the number of information in the Dashboard by selecting rows, columns and cells.

You can select columns, rows, single cells and of course all entries in a Surveillance View. Please refer to the Surveillance View Section for details on how to configure Surveillance Views.

02 dashboard surveillance view
Figure 5. The Surveillance View forms the basis for the Dashboard page.
Alarms

The Alarms component gives an overview about all unacknowledged Alarms with a severity higher than Normal(1). Acknowledged Alarms will be removed from the responsibility of the Operator. The following information are shown in:

03 dashboard alarms
Figure 6. Information displayed in the Alarms component
  1. Node: Node label of the node the Alarm is associated

  2. Severity: Severity of the Alarm

  3. UEI: Shows the UEI of the Alarm

  4. Count: Number of Alarms deduplicated by the reduction key of the Alarm

  5. Last Time: Time for the last occurrence of the Alarm

  6. Log Msg: The log message from the Event which is the source for this Alarm. It is specified in the event configuration file in <logmsg />

The Alarms component shows the most recent Alarms and allows the user to scroll through the last 100 Alarms.

Notifications

To inform people on a duty schedule notifications are used and force action to fix or reconfigure systems immediately. In OpenNMS Horizon it is possible to acknowledge notifications to see who is working on a specific issue. The Dashboard should show outstanding notifications in the NOC to provide an overview and give the possibility for intervention.

04 dashboard notifications
Figure 7. Information displayed in the Notifications component
  1. Node: Label of the monitored node the notification is associated with

  2. Service: Name of the service the notification is associated with

  3. Message: Message of the notification

  4. Sent Time: Time when the notification was sent

  5. Responder: User name who acknowledged the notification

  6. Response Time: Time when the user acknowledged the notification

The Notifications component shows the most recent unacknowledged notifications and allows the user to scroll through the last 100 Notifications.

Node Status

An acknowledged Alarm doesn’t mean necessarily the outage is solved. To give an overview information about ongoing Outages in the network, the Dashboard shows an outage list in the Node Status component.

05 dashboard outages
Figure 8. Information displayed in the Node Status component
  1. Node: Label of the monitored node with ongoing outages.

  2. Current Outages: Number of services on the node with outages and total number of monitored services, e.g. with the natural meaning of "3 of 3 services are affected".

  3. 24 Hour Availability: Availability of all services provided by the node calculated by the last 24 hours.

Resource Graph Viewer

To give a quick entry point diagnose performance issues a Resource Graph Viewer allows to navigate to time series data reports which are filtered in the context of the Surveillance View.

06 dashboard resource graphs
Figure 9. Show time series based performance with the Resource Graph Viewer

It allows to navigate sequentially through resource graphs provided by nodes filtered by the Surveillance View context and selection and shows one graph report at a time.

3.2.2. Advanced configuration

The Surveillance View component allows to model multiple views for different monitoring contexts. It gives the possibility to create special view as example for network operators or server operators. The Dashboard shows only one configured Surveillance View. To give different users the possibility using their Surveillance View fitting there requirements it is possible to map a logged in user to a given Surveillance View used in the Dashboard.

The selected nodes from the Surveillance View are also aware of User Restriction Filter. If you have a group of users, which should see just a subset of nodes the Surveillance View will filter nodes which are not related to the assigned user group.

The Dashboard is designed to focus, and therefore also restrict, a user’s view to devices of their interest. To do this, a new role was added that can be assigned to a user that restricts them to viewing only the Dashboard if that is intended.

Using the Dashboard role

The following example illustrates how this Dashboard role can be used. For instance the user drv4doe is assigned the dashboard role. So, when logging in as drv4doe, the user is taking directly to the Dashboard page and is presented with a custom Dashboard based on the drv4doe Surveillance View definition.

Step 1: Create an user

The following example assigns a Dashboard to the user "drv4doe" (a router and switch jockey) and restricts the user for navigation to any other link in the OpenNMS Horizon WebUI.

07 dashboard add user
Figure 10. Creating the user drv4doe using the OpenNMS Horizon WebUI
Step 2: Change Security Roles

Now, add the ROLE_PROVISION role to the user through the WebUI or by manually editing the users.xml file in the /opt/opennms/etc directory for the user drv4doe.

08 dashboard user roles
Figure 11. Adding dashboard role to the user drv4doe using the OpenNMS Horizon WebUI
<user>
    <user-id>drv4doe</user-id>
    <full-name>Dashboard User</full-name>
    <password salt="true">6FOip6hgZsUwDhdzdPUVV5UhkSxdbZTlq8M5LXWG5586eDPa7BFizirjXEfV/srK</password>
    <role>ROLE_DASHBOARD</role>
</user>
Step 3: Define Surveillance View

Edit the $OPENNMS_HOME/etc/surveilliance-view.xml file to add a definition for the user drv4doe, which you created in step 1.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<surveillance-view-configuration
  xmlns:this="http://www.opennms.org/xsd/config/surveillance-views"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.opennms.org/xsd/config/surveillance-views http://www.opennms.org/xsd/config/surveillance-views.xsd"
  default-view="default" >
  <views >
    <view name="drv4doe" refresh-seconds="300" >
      <rows>
        <row-def label="Servers" >
          <category name="Servers"/>
        </row-def>
      </rows>
      <columns>
        <column-def label="PROD" >
          <category name="Production" />
        </column-def>
        <column-def label="TEST" >
          <category name="Test" />
        </column-def>
      </columns>
    </view>
   <!-- default view here -->
    <view name="default" refresh-seconds="300" >
      <rows>
        <row-def label="Routers" >
          <category name="Routers"/>
        </row-def>
        <row-def label="Switches" >
          <category name="Switches" />
        </row-def>
        <row-def label="Servers" >
          <category name="Servers" />
        </row-def>
      </rows>
      <columns>
        <column-def label="PROD" >
          <category name="Production" />
        </column-def>
        <column-def label="TEST" >
          <category name="Test" />
        </column-def>
        <column-def label="DEV" >
          <category name="Development" />
        </column-def>
      </columns>
    </view>
  </views>
</surveillance-view-configuration>

This configuration and proper assignment of node categories will produce a default Dashboard for all users, other than drv4doe.

You can hide the upper navigation on any page by specifying ?quiet=true; adding it to the end of the OpenNMS Horizon URL. This is very handy when using the dashboard on a large monitor or tv screen for office wide viewing.

However, when logging in as drv4doe, the user is taking directly to the Dashboard page and is presented with a Dashboard based on the custom Surveillance View definition.

The drv4doe user is not allowed to navigate to URLs other than the dashboard.jsp URL. Doing so will result in an Access Denied error.
Anonymous dashboards

You can modify the configuration files for the security framework to give you access to one or more dashboards without logging in. At the end you’ll be able to point a browser at a special URL like http://…​/opennms/dashboard1 or http://…​/opennms/dashboard2 and see a dashboard without any authentication. First, configure surveillance views and create dashboard users as above. For example, make two dashboards and two users called dashboard1 and dashboard2. Test that you can log in as each of the new users and see the correct dashboard. Now create some aliases you can use to distinguish between dashboards. In /opt/opennms/jetty-webapps/opennms/WEB-INF, edit web.xml. Just before the first <servlet-mapping> tag, add the following servlet entries:

  <servlet>
       <servlet-name>dashboard1</servlet-name>
       <jsp-file>/dashboard.jsp</jsp-file>
  </servlet>

  <servlet>
       <servlet-name>dashboard2</servlet-name>
       <jsp-file>/dashboard.jsp</jsp-file>
  </servlet>

Just before the first <error-page> tag, add the following servlet-mapping entries:

  <servlet-mapping>
       <servlet-name>dashboard1</servlet-name>
       <url-pattern>/dashboard1</url-pattern>
  </servlet-mapping>

  <servlet-mapping>
       <servlet-name>dashboard2</servlet-name>
       <url-pattern>/dashboard2</url-pattern>
  </servlet-mapping>

After the last <filter-mapping> tag, add the following filter-mapping entries:

  <filter-mapping>
    <filter-name>AddRefreshHeader-120</filter-name>
    <url-pattern>/dashboard.jsp</url-pattern>
  </filter-mapping>
  <filter-mapping>
    <filter-name>AddRefreshHeader-120</filter-name>
    <url-pattern>/dashboard1</url-pattern>
  </filter-mapping>
  <filter-mapping>
    <filter-name>AddRefreshHeader-120</filter-name>
    <url-pattern>/dashboard2</url-pattern>
  </filter-mapping>

Next edit applicationContext-acegi-security.xml to enable anonymous authentication for the /dashboard1 and /dashboard2 aliases. Near the top of the file, find <bean id="filterChainProxy" …​>. Below the entry for /rss.jsp*, add an entry for each of the dashboard aliases:

  <bean id="filterChainProxy" class="org.acegisecurity.util.FilterChainProxy">
    <property name="filterInvocationDefinitionSource">
      <value>
        CONVERT_URL_TO_LOWERCASE_BEFORE_COMPARISON
        PATTERN_TYPE_APACHE_ANT
        /rss.jsp*=httpSessionContextIntegrationFilter,logoutFilter,authenticationProcessingFilter,basicProcessingFilter,securityContextHolderAwareRequestFilter,anonymousProcessingFilter,basicExceptionTranslationFilter,filterInvocationInterceptor
        /dashboard1*=httpSessionContextIntegrationFilter,logoutFilter,securityContextHolderAwareRequestFilter,dash1AnonymousProcessingFilter,filterInvocationInterceptor
        /dashboard2*=httpSessionContextIntegrationFilter,logoutFilter,securityContextHolderAwareRequestFilter,dash2AnonymousProcessingFilter,filterInvocationInterceptor
        /**=httpSessionContextIntegrationFilter,logoutFilter,authenticationProcessingFilter,basicProcessingFilter,securityContextHolderAwareRequestFilter,anonymousProcessingFilter,exceptionTranslationFilter,filterInvocationInterceptor

...

About halfway through the file, look for <bean id="filterInvocationInterceptor" …​>. Below the entry for /dashboard.jsp, add an entry for each of the aliases:

  <bean id="filterInvocationInterceptor" class="org.acegisecurity.intercept.web.FilterSecurityInterceptor">

...

        /frontpage.htm=ROLE_USER,ROLE_DASHBOARD
        /dashboard.jsp=ROLE_USER,ROLE_DASHBOARD
        /dashboard1=ROLE_USER,ROLE_DASHBOARD
        /dashboard2=ROLE_USER,ROLE_DASHBOARD
        /gwt.js=ROLE_USER,ROLE_DASHBOARD

...

Finally, near the bottom of the page, add a new instance of AnonymousProcessingFilter for each alias.

  <!-- Set the anonymous username to dashboard1 so the dashboard page
       can match it to a surveillance view of the same name. -->
  <bean id="dash1AnonymousProcessingFilter" class="org.acegisecurity.providers.anonymous.AnonymousProcessingFilter">
    <property name="key"><value>foobar</value></property>
    <property name="userAttribute"><value>dashboard1,ROLE_DASHBOARD</value></property>
  </bean>

  <bean id="dash2AnonymousProcessingFilter" class="org.acegisecurity.providers.anonymous.AnonymousProcessingFilter">
    <property name="key"><value>foobar</value></property>
    <property name="userAttribute"><value>dashboard2,ROLE_DASHBOARD</value></property>
  </bean>

Restart OpenNMS Horizon and you should bring up a dashboard at http://…​/opennms/dashboard1 without logging in.

There’s no way to switch dashboards without closing the browser (or deleting the JSESSIONID session cookie).
If you accidentally click a link that requires full user privileges (e.g. Node List), you’ll be given a login form. Once you get to the login form, there’s no going back to the dashboard without restarting the browser. If this problem bothers you, you can set ROLE_USER in addition to ROLE_DASHBOARD in your userAttribute property. However this will give full user access to anonymous browsers.

3.3. Grafana Dashboard Box

Grafana provides an API key which gives access for 3rd party application like OpenNMS Horizon. The Grafana Dashboard Box on the start page shows dashboards related to OpenNMS Horizon. To filter relevant dashboards, you can use a tag for dashboards and make them accessible. If no tag is provided all dashboards from Grafana will be shown.

The feature is by default deactivated and is configured through opennms.properties. Please note that this feature works with the Grafana API v2.5.0.

Quick access to Grafana dashboards from the OpenNMS Horizon start page

01 grafana box

Table 2. Grafana Dashboard configuration properties
Name Type Description Default

org.opennms.grafanaBox.show

Boolean

This setting controls whether a grafana box showing the available dashboards is placed on the landing page. The two valid options for this are true or false.

false

org.opennms.grafanaBox.hostname

String

If the box is enabled you also need to specify hostname of the Grafana server

localhost

org.opennms.grafanaBox.port

Integer

The port of the Grafana server ReST API

3000

org.opennms.grafanaBox.basePath

String

The Grafana base path to be used

org.opennms.grafanaBox.apiKey

String

The API key is needed for the ReST calls to work

org.opennms.grafanaBox.tag

String

When a tag is specified only dashboards with this given tag will be displayed. When no tag is given all dashboards will be displayed

org.opennms.grafanaBox.protocol

String

The protocol for the ReST call can also be specified

http

org.opennms.grafanaBox.connectionTimeout

Integer

Timeout in milliseconds for getting information from the Grafana server

500

org.opennms.grafanaBox.soTimeout

Integer

Socket timeout

500

org.opennms.grafanaBox.dashboardLimit

Integer

Maximum number of entries to be displayed (0 for unlimited)

0

If you have Grafana behind a proxy it is important the org.opennms.grafanaBox.hostname is reachable. This host name is used to generate links to the Grafana dashboards.

The process to generate an Grafana API Key can be found in the HTTP API documentation. Copy the API Key to opennms.properties as org.opennms.grafanaBox.apiKey.

3.4. Operator Board

In a network operation center (NOC) the Ops Board can be used to visualize monitoring information. The monitoring information for various use-cases are arranged in configurable Dashlets. To address different user groups it is possible to create multiple Ops Boards.

There are two visualisation components to display Dashlets:

  • Ops Panel: Shows multiple Dashlets on one screen, e.g. on a NOC operators workstation

  • Ops Board: Shows one Dashlet at a time in rotation, e.g. for a screen wall in a NOC

01 opspanel concept
Figure 12. Concept of Dashlets displayed in Ops Panel
02 opsboard concept
Figure 13. Concept to show Dashlets in rotation on the Ops Board

3.4.1. Configuration

To create and configure Ops Boards administration permissions are required. The configuration section is in admin area of OpenNMS Horizon and named Ops Board Config Web Ui.

03 admin configure opsboard
Figure 14. Navigation to the Ops Board configuration

Create or modify Ops Boards is described in the following screenshot.

04 add dashlet
Figure 15. Adding a Dashlet to an existing Ops Board
  1. Create a new Ops Board to organize and arrange different Dashlets

  2. The name to identify the Ops Board

  3. Add a Dashlet to show OpenNMS Horizon monitoring information

  4. Show a preview of the whole Ops Board

  5. List of available Dashlets

  6. Priority for this Dashlet in Ops Board rotation, lower priority means it will be displayed more often

  7. Duration in seconds for this Dashlet in the Ops Board rotation

  8. Change Priority if the Dashlet is in alert state, this is optional and maybe not available in all Dashlets

  9. Change Duration if the Dashlet is in alert state, it is optional and maybe not available in all Dashlets

  10. Configuration properties for this Dashlet

  11. Remove this Dashlet from the Ops Board

  12. Order Dashlets for the rotation on the Ops Board and the tile view in the Ops Panel

  13. Show a preview for the whole Ops Board

The configured Ops Board can be used by navigating in the main menu to Dashboard → Ops Board.

05 opsboard user
Figure 16. Navigation to use the Ops Board

3.4.2. Dashlets

Visualization of information is implemented in Dashlets. The different Dashlets are described in this section with all available configuration parameter.

To allow filter information the Dashlet can be configured with a generic Criteria Builder.

Alarm Details

This Alarm-Details Dashlet shows a table with alarms and some detailed information.

Table 3. Information of the alarms
Field Description

Alarm ID

OpenNMS Horizon ID for the alarm

Severity

Alarm severity (Cleared, Indeterminate, Normal, Warning, Minor, Major, Critical)

Node label

Node label of the node where the alarm occurred

Alarm count

Alarm count based on reduction key for deduplication

Last Event Time

Last time the alarm occurred

Log Message

Reason and detailed log message of the alarm

The Alarm Details Dashlet can be configured with the following parameters.

Boost support

Boosted Severity

Configuration

Criteria Builder

Alarms

This Alarms Dashlet shows a table with a short alarm description.

Table 4. Information of the alarm
Field Description

Time

Absolute time since the alarm appeared

Node label

Node label of the node where the alarm occurred

UEI

OpenNMS Horizon Unique Event Identifier for this alarm

The Alarms Dashlet can be configured with the following parameters.

Boost support

Boosted Severity

Configuration

Criteria Builder

Charts

This Dashlet displays an existing Chart.

Boost support

false

Chart

Name of the existing chart to display

Maximize Width

Rescale the image to fill display width

Maximize Height

Rescale the image to fill display height

Grafana

This Dashlet shows a Grafana Dashboard for a given time range. The Grafana Dashboard Box configuration defined in the opennms.properties file is used to access the Grafana instance.

Boost support

false

title

Title of the Grafana dashboard to be displayed

uri

URI to the Grafana Dashboard to be displayed

from

Start of time range

to

End of time range

Image

This Dashlet displays an image by a given URL.

Boost support

false

imageUrl

URL with the location of the image to show in this Dashlet

maximizeHeight

Rescale the image to fill display width

maximizeWidth

Rescale the image to fill display height

KSC

This Dashlet shows an existing KSC report. The view is exact the same as the KSC report is build regarding order, columns and time spans.

Boost support

false

KSC-Report

Name of the KSC report to show in this Dashlet

Map

This Dashlet displays the geographical map.

Boost support

false

search

Predefined search for a subset of nodes shown in the geographical map in this Dashlet

RRD

This Dashlet shows one or multiple RRD graphs. It is possible to arrange and order the RRD graphs in multiple columns and rows. All RRD graphs are normalized with a given width and height.

Boost support

false

Columns

Number of columns within the Dashlet

Rows

Number of rows with the Dashlet

KSC Report

Import RRD graphs from an existing KSC report and re-arrange them.

Graph Width

Generic width for all RRD graphs in this Dashlet

Graph Height

Generic height for all RRD graphs in this Dashlet

Timeframe value

Number of the given Timeframe type

Timeframe type

Minute, Hour, Day, Week, Month and Year for all RRD graphs

RTC

This Dashlet shows the configured SLA categories from the OpenNMS Horizon start page.

Boost support

false

-

-

Summary

This Dashlet shows a trend of incoming alarms in given time frame.

Boost support

Boosted Severity

timeslot

Time slot in seconds to evaluate the trend for alarms by severity and UEI.

Surveillance

This Dashlet shows a given Surveillance View.

Boost support

false

viewName

Name of the configured Surveillance View

Topology

This Dashlet shows a Topology Map. The Topology Map can be configured with the following parameter.

Boost support

false

focusNodes

Which node(s) is in focus for the topology

provider

Which topology should be displayed, e.g. Linkd, VMware

szl

Set the zoom level for the topology

URL

This Dashlet shows the content of a web page or other web application, e.g. other monitoring systems by a given URL.

Boost support

false

password

Optional password if a basic authentication is required

url

URL to the web application or web page

username

Optional username if a basic authentication is required

3.4.3. Boosting Dashlet

The behavior to boost a Dashlet describes the behavior of a Dashlet showing critical monitoring information. It can raise the priority in the Ops Board rotation to indicate a problem. This behavior can be configured with the configuration parameter Boost Priority and Boost Duration. These to configuration parameter effect the behavior on the Ops Board in rotation.

  • Boost Priority: Absolute priority of the Dashlet with critical monitoring information.

  • Boost Duration: Absolute duration in seconds of the Dashlet with critical monitoring information.

3.4.4. Criteria Builder

The Criteria Builder is a generic component to filter information of a Dashlet. Some Dashlets use this component to filter the shown information on a Dashlet for certain use case. It is possible to combine multiple Criteria to display just a subset of information in a given Dashlet.

Table 5. Generic Criteria Builder configuration possibilities
Restriction Property Value 1 Value 2 Description

Asc

-

-

-

ascending order

Desc

-

-

-

descending order

Between

database attribute

String

String

Subset of data between value 1 and value 2

Contains

database attribute

String

-

Select all data which contains a given text string in a given database attribute

Distinct

database attribute

-

-

Select a single instance

Eq

database attribute

String

-

Select data where attribute equals (==) a given text string

Ge

database attribute

String

-

Select data where attribute is greater equals than (>=) a given text value

Gt

database attribute

String

-

Select data where attribute is greater than (>) a given text value

Ilike

database attribute

String

-

unknown

In

database attribute

String

-

unknown

Iplike

database attribute

String

-

Select data where attribute matches an given IPLIKE expression

IsNull

database attribute

-

-

Select data where attribute is null

IsNotNull

database attribute

-

-

Select data where attribute is not null

IsNotNull

database attribute

-

-

Select data where attribute is not null

Le

database attribute

String

-

Select data where attribute is less equals than () a given text value

Lt

database attribute

String

-

Select data where attribute is less than (<) a given text value

Le

database attribute

String

-

Select data where attribute is less equals than () a given text value

Like

database attribute

String

-

Select data where attribute is like a given text value similar to SQL like

Limit

-

Integer

-

Limit the result set by a given number

Ne

database attribute

String

-

Select data where attribute is not equals (!=) a given text value

Not

database attribute

String

-

unknown difference between Ne

OrderBy

database attribute

-

-

Order the result set by a given attribute

3.5. JMX Configuration Generator

OpenNMS Horizon implements the JMX protocol to collect long term performance data for Java applications. There are a huge variety of metrics available and administrators have to select which information should be collected. The JMX Configuration Generator Tools is build to help generating valid complex JMX data collection configuration and RRD graph definitions for OpenNMS Horizon.

This tool is available as CLI and a web based version.

3.5.1. Web based utility

Complex JMX data collection configurations can be generated from a web based tool. It collects all available MBean Attributes or Composite Data Attributes from a JMX enabled Java application.

The workflow of the tool is:

  1. Connect with JMX or JMXMP against a MBean Server provided of a Java application

  2. Retrieve all MBean and Composite Data from the application

  3. Select specific MBeans and Composite Data objects which should be collected by OpenNMS Horizon

  4. Generate JMX Collectd configuration file and RRD graph definitions for OpenNMS Horizon as downloadable archive

The following connection settings are supported:

  • Ability to connect to MBean Server with RMI based JMX

  • Authentication credentials for JMX connection

  • Optional: JMXMP connection

The web based configuration tool can be used in the OpenNMS Horizon Web Application in administration section Admin → JMX Configuration Generator.

Configure JMX Connection

At the beginning the connection to an MBean Server of a Java application has to be configured.

01 webui connection
Figure 17. JMX connection configuration window
  • Service name: The name of the service to bind the JMX data collection for Collectd

  • Host: IP address or FQDN connecting to the MBean Server to load MBeans and Composite Data into the generation tool

  • Port: Port to connect to the MBean Server

  • Authentication: Enable / Disable authentication for JMX connection with username and password

  • Skip non-number values: Skip attributes with non-number values

  • JMXMP: Enable / Disable JMX Messaging Protocol instead of using JMX over RMI

By clicking the arrow ( > ) the MBeans and Composite Data will be retrieved with the given connection settings. The data is loaded into the MBeans Configuration screen which allows to select metrics for the data collection configuration.

Select MBeans and Composite

The MBeans Configuration section is used to assign the MBean and Composite Data attributes to RRD domain specific data types and data source names.

02 webui mbean selection
Figure 18. Select MBeans or Composite Data for OpenNMS Horizon data collection

The left sidebar shows the tree with the JMX Domain, MBeans and Composite Data hierarchy retrieved from the MBean Server. To select or deselect all attributes use Mouse right click → select/deselect.

The right panel shows the MBean Attributes with the RRD specific mapping and allows to select or deselect specific MBean Attriubtes or Composite Data Attributes for the data collection configuration.

03 webui mbean details
Figure 19. Configure MBean attributes for data collection configuration
04 webui composite details
Figure 20. Configure Composite attributes for data collection configuration
  • MBean Name or Composite Alias: Identifies the MBean or the Composite Data object

  • Selected: Enable/Disable the MBean attribute or Composite Member to be included in the data collection configuration

  • Name: Name of the MBean attribute or Composite Member

  • Alias: the data source name for persisting measurements in RRD or JRobin file

  • Type: Gauge or Counter data type for persisting measurements in RRD or JRobin file

The MBean Name, Composite Alias and Name are validated against special characters. For the Alias inputs are validated to be not longer then 19 characters and have to be unique in the data collection configuration.

Download and include configuration

The last step is generating the following configuration files for OpenNMS Horizon:

  • collectd-configuration.xml: Generated sample configuration assigned to a service with a matching data collection group

  • jmx-datacollection-config.xml: Generated JMX data collection configuration with the selected MBeans and Composite Data

  • snmp-graph.properties: Generated default RRD graph definition files for all selected metrics

The content of the configuration files can be copy & pasted or can be downloaded as ZIP archive.

If the content of the configuration file exceeds 2,500 lines, the files can only be downloaded as ZIP archive.

3.5.2. CLI based utility

The command line (CLI) based tool is not installed by default. It is available as Debian and RPM package in the official repositories.

Installation
RHEL based installation with Yum
yum install opennms-jmx-config-generator
Debian based installation with apt
apt-get install opennms-jmx-config-generator
Installation from source

It is required to have the Java 8 Development Kit with Apache Maven installed. The mvn binary has to be in the path environment. After cloning the repository you have to enter the source folder and compile an executable JAR.

cd opennms/features/jmx-config-generator
mvn package

Inside the newly created target folder a file named jmxconfiggenerator-<VERSION>-onejar.jar is present. This file can be invoked by:

java -jar target/jmxconfiggenerator-24.0.0-SNAPSHOT-onejar.jar
Usage

After installing the the JMX Config Generator the tool’s wrapper script is located in the ${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin directory.

$ cd /path/to/opennms/bin
$ ./jmx-config-generator
When invoked without parameters the usage and help information is printed.

The JMX Config Generator uses sub-commands for the different configuration generation tasks. Each of these sub-commands provide different options and parameters. The command line tool accepts the following sub-commands.

Sub-command Description

query

Queries a MBean Server for certain MBeans and attributes.

generate-conf

Generates a valid jmx-datacollection-config.xml file.

generate-graph

Generates a RRD graph definition file with matching graph definitions for a given jmx-datacollection-config.xml.

The following global options are available in each of the sub-commands of the tool:

Option/Argument Description Default

-h (--help)

Show help and usage information.

false

-v (--verbose)

Enables verbose mode for debugging purposes.

false

Sub-command: query

This sub-command is used to query a MBean Server for it’s available MBean objects. The following example queries the server myserver with the credentials myusername/mypassword on port 7199 for MBean objects in the java.lang domain.

./jmx-config-generator query --host myserver --username myusername --password mypassword --port 7199 "java.lang:*"
java.lang:type=ClassLoading
	description: Information on the management interface of the MBean
	class name: sun.management.ClassLoadingImpl
	attributes: (5/5)
		TotalLoadedClassCount
			id: java.lang:type=ClassLoading:TotalLoadedClassCount
			description: TotalLoadedClassCount
			type: long
			isReadable: true
			isWritable: false
			isIs: false
		LoadedClassCount
			id: java.lang:type=ClassLoading:LoadedClassCount
			description: LoadedClassCount
			type: int
			isReadable: true
			isWritable: false
			isIs: false

<output omitted>

The following command line options are available for the query sub-command.

Option/Argument Description Default

<filter criteria>

A filter criteria to query the MBean Server for. The format is <objectname>[:attribute name]. The <objectname> accepts the default JMX object name pattern to identify the MBeans to be retrieved. If null all domains are shown. If no key properties are specified, the domain’s MBeans are retrieved. To execute for certain attributes, you have to add :<attribute name>. The <attribute name> accepts regular expressions. When multiple <filter criteria> are provided they are OR concatenated.

-

--host <host>

Hostname or IP address of the remote JMX host.

-

--ids-only

Only show the ids of the attributes.

false

--ignore <filter criteria>

Set <filter criteria> to ignore while running.

-

--include-values

Include attribute values.

false

--jmxmp

Use JMXMP and not JMX over RMI.

false

--password <password>

Password for JMX authentication.

-

--port <port>

Port of JMX service.

 -

--show-domains

Only lists the available domains.

true

--show-empty

Includes MBeans, even if they do not have attributes. Either due to the <filter criteria> or while there are none.

false

--url <url>

Custom connection URL
<hostname>:<port>
service:jmx:<protocol>:<sap>
service:jmx:remoting-jmx://<hostname>:<port>

-

--username <username>

Username for JMX authentication.

 -

-h (--help)

Show help and usage information.

false

-v (--verbose)

Enables verbose mode for debugging purposes.

false

Sub-command: generate-conf

This sub-command can be used to generate a valid jmx-datacollection-config.xml for a given set of MBean objects queried from a MBean Server.

The following example generate a configuration file myconfig.xml for MBean objects in the java.lang domain of the server myserver on port 7199 with the credentials myusername/mypassword. You have to define either an URL or a hostname and port to connect to a JMX server.

jmx-config-generator generate-conf --host myserver --username myusername --password mypassword --port 7199 "java.lang:*" --output myconfig.xml
Dictionary entries loaded: '18'

The following options are available for the generate-conf sub-command.

Option/Argument Description Default

<attribute id>

A list of attribute Ids to be included for the generation of the configuration file.

 -

--dictionary <file>

Path to a dictionary file for replacing attribute names and part of MBean attributes. The file should have for each line a replacement, e.g. Auxillary:Auxil.

-

--host <host>

Hostname or IP address of JMX host.

-

--jmxmp

Use JMXMP and not JMX over RMI.

false

--output <file>

Output filename to write generated jmx-datacollection-config.xml.

-

--password <password>

Password for JMX authentication.

 -

--port <port>

Port of JMX service

-

--print-dictionary

Prints the used dictionary to STDOUT. May be used with --dictionary

false

--service <value>

The Service Name used as JMX data collection name.

anyservice

--skipDefaultVM

Skip default JavaVM Beans.

false

--skipNonNumber

Skip attributes with non-number values

false

--url <url>

Custom connection URL
<hostname>:<port>
service:jmx:<protocol>:<sap>
service:jmx:remoting-jmx://<hostname>:<port>

-

--username <username>

Username for JMX authentication

-

-h (--help)

Show help and usage information.

false

-v (--verbose)

Enables verbose mode for debugging purposes.

false

The option --skipDefaultVM offers the ability to ignore the MBeans provided as standard by the JVM and just create configurations for the MBeans provided by the Java Application itself. This is particularly useful if an optimized configuration for the JVM already exists. If the --skipDefaultVM option is not set the generated configuration will include the MBeans of the JVM and the MBeans of the Java Application.
Check the file and see if there are alias names with more than 19 characters. This errors are marked with NAME_CRASH_AS_19_CHAR_VALUE
Sub-command: generate-graph

This sub-command generates a RRD graph definition file for a given configuration file. The following example generates a graph definition file mygraph.properties using the configuration in file myconfig.xml.

./jmx-config-generator generate-graph --input myconfig.xml --output mygraph.properties
reports=java.lang.ClassLoading.MBeanReport, \
java.lang.ClassLoading.0TotalLoadeClassCnt.AttributeReport, \
java.lang.ClassLoading.0LoadedClassCnt.AttributeReport, \
java.lang.ClassLoading.0UnloadedClassCnt.AttributeReport, \
java.lang.Compilation.MBeanReport, \
<output omitted>

The following options are available for this sub-command.

Option/Argument Description Default

--input <jmx-datacollection.xml>

Configuration file to use as input to generate the graph properties file

 -

--output <file>

Output filename for the generated graph properties file.

 -

--print-template

Prints the default template.

 false

--template <file>

Template file using Apache Velocity template engine to be used to generate the graph properties.

 -

-h (--help)

Show help and usage information.

false

-v (--verbose)

Enables verbose mode for debugging purposes.

false

Graph Templates

The JMX Config Generator uses a template file to generate the graphs. It is possible to use a user-defined template. The option --template followed by a file lets the JMX Config Generator use the external template file as base for the graph generation. The following example illustrates how a custom template mytemplate.vm is used to generate the graph definition file mygraph.properties using the configuration in file myconfig.xml.

./jmx-config-generator generate-graph --input myconfig.xml --output mygraph.properties --template mytemplate.vm

The template file has to be an Apache Velocity template. The following sample represents the template that is used by default:

reports=#foreach( $report in $reportsList )
${report.id}#if( $foreach.hasNext ), \
#end
#end

#foreach( $report in $reportsBody )

#[[###########################################]]#
#[[##]]# $report.id
#[[###########################################]]#
report.${report.id}.name=${report.name}
report.${report.id}.columns=${report.graphResources}
report.${report.id}.type=interfaceSnmp
report.${report.id}.command=--title="${report.title}" \
 --vertical-label="${report.verticalLabel}" \
#foreach($graph in $report.graphs )
 DEF:${graph.id}={rrd${foreach.count}}:${graph.resourceName}:AVERAGE \
 AREA:${graph.id}#${graph.coloreB} \
 LINE2:${graph.id}#${graph.coloreA}:"${graph.description}" \
 GPRINT:${graph.id}:AVERAGE:" Avg \\: %8.2lf %s" \
 GPRINT:${graph.id}:MIN:" Min \\: %8.2lf %s" \
 GPRINT:${graph.id}:MAX:" Max \\: %8.2lf %s\\n" \
#end

#end

The JMX Config Generator generates different types of graphs from the jmx-datacollection-config.xml. The different types are listed below:

Type Description

AttributeReport

For each attribute of any MBean a graph will be generated. Composite attributes will be ignored.

MbeanReport

For each MBean a combined graph with all attributes of the MBeans is generated. Composite attributes will be ignored.

CompositeReport

For each composite attribute of every MBean a graph is generated.

CompositeAttributeReport

For each composite member of every MBean a combined graph with all composite attributes is generated.

3.6. Heatmap

The Heatmap can be either be used to display unacknowledged alarms or to display ongoing outages of nodes. Each of this visualizations can be applied on categories, foreign sources or services of nodes. The sizing of an entity is calculated by counting the services inside the entity. Thus, a node with fewer services will appear in a smaller box than a node with more services.

The feature is by default deactivated and is configured through opennms.properties.

Heatmap visualizations of alarms

heatmap

Table 6. Heatmap dashboard configuration properties
Name Type Description Default

org.opennms.heatmap.defaultMode

String

There exist two options for using the heatmap: alarms and outages. This option configures which are displayed per default.

alarms

org.opennms.heatmap.defaultHeatmap

String

This option defines which Heatmap is displayed by default. Valid options are categories, foreignSources and monitoredServices.

categories

org.opennms.heatmap.categoryFilter

String

The following option is used to filter for categories to be displayed in the Heatmap. This option uses the Java regular expression syntax. The default is .* so all categories will be displayed.

.*

org.opennms.heatmap.foreignSourceFilter

String

The following option is used to filter for foreign sources to be displayed in the Heatmap. This option uses the Java regular expression syntax. The default is .* so all foreign sources will be displayed.

.*

org.opennms.heatmap.serviceFilter

String

The following option is used to filter for services to be displayed in the Heatmap. This option uses the Java regular expression syntax. The default is .* so all services will be displayed.

.*

org.opennms.heatmap.onlyUnacknowledged

Boolean

This option configures whether only unacknowledged alarms will be taken into account when generating the alarm-based version of the Heatmap.

false

org.opennms.web.console.centerUrl

String

You can also place the Heatmap on the landing page by setting this option to /heatmap/heatmap-box.jsp.

/surveillance-box.jsp

You can use negative lookahead expressions for excluding categories you wish not to be displayed in the heatmap, e.g. by using an expression like ^(?!XY).* you can filter out entities with names starting with XY.

3.7. Trend

The Trend feature allows to display small inline charts of database-based statistics. These chart are accessible in the Status menu of the OpenNMS' web application. Furthermore it is also possible to configure these charts to be displayed on the OpenNMS' landing page. To achieve this alter the org.opennms.web.console.centerUrl property to also include the entry /trend/trend-box.htm.

Trend chart structure

trend chart

These charts can be configured and defined in the trend-configuration.xml file in your OpenNMS' etc directory. The following sample defines a Trend chart for displaying nodes with ongoing outages.

Sample Trend chart XML definition for displaying nodes with outages
   <trend-definition name="nodes">
        <title>Nodes</title> (1)
        <subtitle>w/ Outages</subtitle> (2)
        <visible>true</visible> (3)
        <icon>glyphicon-fire</icon> (4)
        <trend-attributes> (5)
            <trend-attribute key="sparkWidth" value="100%"/>
            <trend-attribute key="sparkHeight" value="35"/>
            <trend-attribute key="sparkChartRangeMin" value="0"/>
            <trend-attribute key="sparkLineColor" value="white"/>
            <trend-attribute key="sparkLineWidth" value="1.5"/>
            <trend-attribute key="sparkFillColor" value="#88BB55"/>
            <trend-attribute key="sparkSpotColor" value="white"/>
            <trend-attribute key="sparkMinSpotColor" value="white"/>
            <trend-attribute key="sparkMaxSpotColor" value="white"/>
            <trend-attribute key="sparkSpotRadius" value="3"/>
            <trend-attribute key="sparkHighlightSpotColor" value="white"/>
            <trend-attribute key="sparkHighlightLineColor" value="white"/>
        </trend-attributes>
        <descriptionLink>outage/list.htm?outtype=current</descriptionLink> (6)
        <description>${intValue[23]} NODES WITH OUTAGE(S)</description> (7)
        <query> (8)
            <![CDATA[
                select (
                    select
                        count(distinct nodeid)
                    from
                        outages o, events e
                    where
                        e.eventid = o.svclosteventid
                        and iflostservice < E
                        and (ifregainedservice is null
                            or ifregainedservice > E)
                ) from (
                    select
                        now() - interval '1 hour' * (O + 1) AS S,
                        now() - interval '1 hour' * O as E
                    from
                        generate_series(0, 23) as O
                ) I order by S;
            ]]>
        </query>
    </trend-definition>
1 title of the Trend chart, see below for supported variable substitutions
2 subtitle of the Trend chart, see below for supported variable substitutions
3 defines whether the chart is visible by default
4 icon for the chart, see Glyphicons for viable options
5 options for inline chart, see jQuery Sparklines for viable options
6 the description link
7 the description text, see below for supported variable substitutions
8 the SQL statement for querying the chart’s values
Don’t forget to limit the SQL query’s return values!

It is possible to use values or aggregated values in the title, subtitle and description fields. The following table describes the available variable substitutions.

Table 7. Variables usable in definition’s title, subtitle and description fields
Name Type Description

${intMax}

Integer

integer maximum value

${doubleMax}

Double

maximum value

${intMin}

Integer

integer minimum value

${doubleMin}

Double

minimum value

${intAvg}

Integer

integer average value

${doubleAvg}

Double

average value

${intSum}

Integer

integer sum of values

${doubleSum}

Double

sum of value

${intValue[]}

Integer

array of integer result values for the given SQL query

${doubleValue[]}

Double

array of result values for the given SQL query

${intValueChange[]}

Integer

array of integer value changes for the given SQL query

${doubleValueChange[]}

Double

array of value changes for the given SQL query

${intLastValue}

Integer

last integer value

${doubleLastValue}

Double

last value

${intLastValueChange}

Integer

last integer value change

${doubleLastValueChange}

Double

last value change

You can also display a single graph in your JSP files by including the file /trend/single-trend-box.jsp and specifying the name parameter.

Sample JSP snippet to include a single Trend chart with name 'example'
<jsp:include page="/trend/single-trend-box.jsp" flush="false">
    <jsp:param name="name" value="example"/>
</jsp:include>

4. Service Assurance

This section will cover the basic functionalities how OpenNMS Horizon tests if a service or device available and measure his latency.

In OpenNMS Horizon this task is provided by a Service Monitor framework. The main component is Pollerd which provides the following functionalities:

  • Track the status of a management resource or an application for availability calculations

  • Measure response times for service quality

  • Correlation of node and interface outages based on a Critical Service

The following image shows the model and representation of availability and response time.

01 node model
Figure 21. Representation of latency measurement and availability

This information is based on Service Monitors which are scheduled and executed by Pollerd. A Service can have any arbitrary name and is associated with a Service Monitor. For example, we can define two Services with the name HTTP and HTTP-8080, both are associated with the HTTP Service Monitor but use a different TCP port configuration parameter. The following figure shows how Pollerd interacts with other components in OpenNMS and applications or agents to be monitored.

The availability is calculated over the last 24 hours and is shown in the Surveillance Views, SLA Categories and the Node Detail Page. Response times are displayed as Resource Graphs of the IP Interface on the Node Detail Page. Configuration parameters of the Service Monitor can be seen in the Service Page by clicking on the Service Name on the Node Detail Page. The status of a Service can be Up or Down.

When a Service Monitor detects an outage, Pollerd sends an Event which is used to create an Alarm. Events can also be used to generate Notifications for on-call network or server administrators. The following images shows the interaction of Pollerd in OpenNMS Horizon.

02 service assurance
Figure 22. Service assurance with Pollerd in OpenNMS platform

Pollerd can generate the following Events in OpenNMS Horizon:

Event name Description

uei.opennms.org/nodes/nodeLostService

Critical Services are still up, just this service is lost.

uei.opennms.org/nodes/nodeRegainedService

Service came back up

uei.opennms.org/nodes/interfaceDown

Critical Service on an IP interface is down or all services are down.

uei.opennms.org/nodes/interfaceUp

Critical Service on that interface came back up again

uei.opennms.org/nodes/nodeDown

All critical services on all IP interfaces are down from node. The whole host is unreachable over the network.

uei.opennms.org/nodes/nodeUp

Some of the Critical Services came back online.

The behavior to generate interfaceDown and nodeDown events is described in the Critical Service section.

This assumes that node-outage processing is enabled.

4.1. Pollerd Configuration

Table 8. Configuration and log files related to Pollerd.
File Description

$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/poller-configuration.xml

Configuration file for monitors and global daemon configuration

$OPENNMS_HOME/logs/poller.log

Log file for all monitors and the global Pollerd

$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/response-graph.properties

RRD graph definitions for service response time measurements

$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/events/opennms.events.xml

Event definitions for Pollerd, i.e. nodeLostService, interfaceDown or nodeDown

To change the behavior for service monitoring, the poller-configuration.xml can be modified. The configuration file is structured in the following parts:

  • Global daemon config: Define the size of the used Thread Pool to run Service Monitors in parallel. Define and configure the Critical Service for Node Event Correlation.

  • Polling packages: Package to allow grouping of configuration parameters for Service Monitors.

  • Downtime Model: Configure the behavior of Pollerd to run tests in case of an Outage is detected.

  • Monitor service association: Based on the name of the service, the implementation for application or network management protocols are assigned.

Global configuration parameters for Pollerd
<poller-configuration threads="30" (1)
                      pathOutageEnabled="false" (2)
                      serviceUnresponsiveEnabled="false"> (3)
1 Size of the Thread Pool to run Service Monitors in parallel
2 Enable or Disable Path Outage functionality based on a Critical Node in a network path
3 In case of unresponsive service services a serviceUnresponsive event is generated and not an outage. It prevents to apply the Downtime Model to retest the service after 30 seconds and prevents false alarms.

Configuration changes are applied by restarting OpenNMS and Pollerd. It is also possible to send an Event to Pollerd reloading the configuration. An Event can be sent on the CLI or the Web User Interface.

Send configuration reload event on CLI
cd $OPENNMS_HOME/bin
./send-event.pl uei.opennms.org/internal/reloadDaemonConfig --parm 'daemonName Pollerd'
04 send event WebUI
Figure 23. Send configuration reload event with the Web User Interface
If you define new services in poller-configuration.xml a service restart of OpenNMS is necessary.

4.2. Critical Service

Monitoring services on an IP network can be resource expensive, especially in cases where many of these services are not available. When a service is offline, or unreachable, the monitoring system spends most of it’s time waiting for retries and timeouts.

In order to improve efficiency, OpenNMS Horizon deems all services on a interface to be Down if the critical service is Down. By default OpenNMS Horizon uses ICMP as the critical service.

The following image shows, how a Critical Services is used to generate these events.

03 node outage correlation
Figure 24. Service assurance with Pollerd in OpenNMS Horizon platform
  • (1) Critical services are all Up on the Node and just a nodeLostService is sent.

  • (2) Critical service of one of many IP interface is Down and interfaceDown is sent. All other services are not tested and no events are sent, the services are assumed as unreachable.

  • (3) All Critical services on the Node are Down and just a nodeDown is sent. All other services on the other IP Interfaces are not tested and no events are sent, these services are assumed as unreachable.

The Critical Service is used to correlate outages from Services to a nodeDown or interfaceDown event. It is a global configuration of Pollerd defined in poller-configuration.xml. The OpenNMS Horizon default configuration enables this behavior.

Critical Service Configuration in Pollerd
<poller-configuration threads="30"
                      pathOutageEnabled="false"
                      serviceUnresponsiveEnabled="false">

  <node-outage status="on" (1)
               pollAllIfNoCriticalServiceDefined="true"> (2)
    <critical-service name="ICMP" /> (3)
  </node-outage>
1 Enable Node Outage correlation based on a Critical Service
2 Optional: In case of nodes without a Critical Service this option controls the behavior. If set to true then all services will be polled. If set to false then the first service in the package that exists on the node will be polled until service is restored, and then polling will resume for all services.
3 Define Critical Service for Node Outage correlation

4.3. Downtime Model

By default the monitoring interval for a service is 5 minutes. To detect also short services outages, caused for example by automatic network rerouting, the downtime model can be used. On a detected service outage, the interval is reduced to 30 seconds for 5 minutes. If the service comes back within 5 minutes, a shorter outage is documented and the impact on service availability can be less than 5 minutes. This behavior is called Downtime Model and is configurable.

01 downtime model
Figure 25. Downtime model with resolved and ongoing outage

In figure Outages and Downtime Model there are two outages. The first outage shows a short outage which was detected as up after 90 seconds. The second outage is not resolved now and the monitor has not detected an available service and was not available in the first 5 minutes (10 times 30 second polling). The scheduler changed the polling interval back to 5 minutes.

Example default configuration of the Downtime Model
<downtime interval="30000" begin="0" end="300000" /><!-- 30s, 0, 5m -->(1)
<downtime interval="300000" begin="300000" end="43200000" /><!-- 5m, 5m, 12h -->(2)
<downtime interval="600000" begin="43200000" end="432000000" /><!-- 10m, 12h, 5d -->(3)
<downtime interval="3600000" begin="432000000" /><!-- 1h, 5d -->(4)
1 from 0 seconds after an outage is detected until 5 minutes the polling interval will be set to 30 seconds
2 after 5 minutes of an ongoing outage until 12 hours the polling interval will be set to 5 minutes
3 after 12 hours of an ongoing outage until 5 days the polling interval will be set to 10 minutes
4 after 5 days of an ongoing outage the service will polled only once a hour

4.4. Path Outages

An outage of a central network component can cause a lot of node outages. Path Outages can be used to suppress Notifications based on how Nodes depend on each other in the network which are defined in a Critical Path. The Critical Path needs to be configured from the network perspective of the monitoring system. By default the Path Outage feature is disabled and has to be enabled in the poller-configuration.xml.

The following image shows an example network topology.

02 path outage
Figure 26. Path Outage example

From the perspective of the monitoring system, a Router named default-gw-01 is on the Critical Path to reach two networks. If Router default-gw-01 is down, it is not possible to reach any node in the two networks behind and they will be all unreachable as well. In this case an administrator would like to have just one notification for default-gw-01 and not for all the other Nodes behind. Building this configuration in OpenNMS Horizon requires the following information:

  • Parent Foreign Source: The Foreign Source where the parent node is defined.

  • Parent Foreign ID: The Foreign ID of the parent Node where this node depends on.

  • The IP Interface selected as Primary is used as Critical IP

In this example we have created all Nodes in a Provisioning Requisition named Network-ACME and we use as the Foreign ID the same as the Node Label.

In the Web UI go to Admin → Configure OpenNMS → Manage Provisioning Requisitions → Edit the Requisition → Edit the Node → Path Outage to configure the network path by setting the Parent Foreign Source, Parent Foreign ID and Provisioned Node.

Table 9. Provisioning for Topology Example
Parent Foreign Source Parent Foreign ID Provisioned Node

not defined

not defined

default-gw-01

Network-ACME

default-gw-01

node-01

Network-ACME

default-gw-01

node-02

Network-ACME

default-gw-01

default-gw02

Network-ACME

default-gw-02

node-03

Network-ACME

default-gw-02

node-04

The IP Interface which is set to Primary is selected as the Critical IP. In this example it is important the IP interface on default-gw-01 in the network 192.168.1.0/24 is set as Primary interface. The IP interface in the network 172.23.42.0/24 on default-gw-02 is set as Primary interface.

4.5. Poller Packages

To define more complex monitoring configuration it is possible to group Service configurations into Polling Packages. They allow to assign to Nodes different Service Configurations. To assign a Polling Package to nodes the Rules/Filters syntax can be used. Each Polling Package can have its own Downtime Model configuration.

Multiple packages can be configured, and an interface can exist in more than one package. This gives great flexibility to how the service levels will be determined for a given device.

Polling package assigned to Nodes with Rules and Filters
<package name="example1">(1)
  <filter>IPADDR != '0.0.0.0'</filter>(2)
  <include-range begin="1.1.1.1" end="254.254.254.254" />(3)
  <include-range begin="::1" end="ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff" />(3)
1 Unique name of the polling package.
2 Filter can be based on IP address, categories or asset attributes of Nodes based on Rules/Filters. The filter is evaluated first and is required. This package is used for all IP Interfaces which don’t have 0.0.0.0 as an assigned IP address and is required.
3 Allow to specify if the configuration of Services is applied on a range of IP Interfaces (IPv4 or IPv6).

Instead of the include-range it is possible to add one or more specific IP-Interfaces with:

Defining a specific IP Interfaces
<specific>192.168.1.59</specific>

It is also possible to exclude IP Interfaces with:

Exclude IP Interfaces
<exclude-range begin="192.168.0.100" end="192.168.0.104"/>

4.5.1. Response Time Configuration

The definition of Polling Packages allows to configure similar services with different polling intervals. All the response time measurements are persisted in RRD Files and require a definition. Each Polling Package contains a RRD definition

RRD configuration for Polling Package example1
<package name="example1">
  <filter>IPADDR != '0.0.0.0'</filter>
  <include-range begin="1.1.1.1" end="254.254.254.254" />
  <include-range begin="::1" end="ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff" />
  <rrd step="300">(1)
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016</rra>(2)
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:1488</rra>(3)
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:366</rra>(4)
    <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:366</rra>(5)
    <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:366</rra>(6)
</rrd>
1 Polling interval for all services in this Polling Package is reflected in the step of size 300 seconds. All services in this package have to polled in 5 min interval, otherwise response time measurements are not correct persisted.
2 1 step size is persisted 2016 times: 1 * 5 min * 2016 = 7 d, 5 min accuracy for 7 d.
3 12 steps average persisted 1488 times: 12 * 5 min * 1488 = 62 d, aggregated to 60 min for 62 d.
4 288 steps average persisted 366 times: 288 * 5 min * 366 = 366 d, aggregated to 24 h for 366 d.
5 288 steps maximum from 24 h persisted for 366 d.
6 288 steps minimum from 24 h persisted for 366 d.
The RRD configuration and the service polling interval has to be aligned. In other cases the persisted response time data is not correct displayed in the response time graph.
If the polling interval is changed afterwards, existing RRD files needs to be recreated with the new definitions.

4.5.2. Overlapping Services

With the possibility of specifying multiple Polling Packages it is possible to use the same Service like ICMP multiple times. The order how Polling Packages in the poller-configuration.xml are defined is important when IP Interfaces match multiple Polling Packages with the same Service configuration.

The following example shows which configuration is applied for a specific service:

Overwriting
<package name="less-specific">
  <filter>IPADDR != '0.0.0.0'</filter>
  <include-range begin="1.1.1.1" end="254.254.254.254" />
  <include-range begin="::1" end="ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff" />
  <rrd step="300">(1)
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:1488</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:366</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:366</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:366</rra>
  </rrd>
  <service name="ICMP" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">(2)
    <parameter key="retry" value="5" />(3)
    <parameter key="timeout" value="10000" />(4)
    <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/response" />
    <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="icmp" />
    <parameter key="ds-name" value="icmp" />
  </service>
  <downtime interval="30000" begin="0" end="300000" />
  <downtime interval="300000" begin="300000" end="43200000" />
  <downtime interval="600000" begin="43200000" end="432000000" />
</package>

<package name="more-specific">
  <filter>IPADDR != '0.0.0.0'</filter>
  <include-range begin="192.168.1.1" end="192.168.1.254" />
  <include-range begin="2600::1" end="2600:::ffff" />
  <rrd step="30">(1)
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:20160</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:14880</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:3660</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:3660</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:3660</rra>
  </rrd>
  <service name="ICMP" interval="30000" user-defined="false" status="on">(2)
    <parameter key="retry" value="2" />(3)
    <parameter key="timeout" value="3000" />(4)
    <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/response" />
    <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="icmp" />
    <parameter key="ds-name" value="icmp" />
  </service>
  <downtime interval="10000" begin="0" end="300000" />
  <downtime interval="300000" begin="300000" end="43200000" />
  <downtime interval="600000" begin="43200000" end="432000000" />
</package>
1 Polling interval in the packages are 300 seconds and 30 seconds
2 Different polling interval for the service ICMP
3 Different retry settings for the service ICMP
4 Different timeout settings for the service ICMP

The last Polling Package on the service will be applied. This can be used to define a less specific catch all filter for a default configuration. A more specific Polling Package can be used to overwrite the default setting. In the example above all IP Interfaces in 192.168.1/24 or 2600:/64 will be monitored with ICMP with different polling, retry and timeout settings.

Which Polling Packages are applied to the IP Interface and Service can be found in the Web User Interface. The IP Interface and Service page show which Polling Package and Service configuration is applied for this specific service.

03 polling package
Figure 27. Polling Package applied to IP interface and Service

4.5.3. Test Services on manually

For troubleshooting it is possible to run a test via the Karaf Shell:

ssh -p 8101 admin@localhost

Once in the shell, you can print show the commands help as follows:

opennms> poller:test --help
DESCRIPTION
        poller:test

        Execute a poller test from the command line using current settings from poller-configuration.xml

SYNTAX
        poller:test [options]

OPTIONS
        -s, --service
                Service name
        -p, --param
                Service parameter ~ key=value
        -i, --ipaddress
                IP Address to test
        -P, --package
                Poller Package
        -c, --class
                Monitor Class
        --help
                Display this help message

The following example runs the ICMP monitor on a specific IP Interface.

Run ICMP monitor configuration defined in specific Polling Package
opennms> poller:test -i 10.23.42.1 -s ICMP -P example1

The output is verbose which allows debugging of Monitor configurations. Important output lines are shown as the following:

Important output testing a service on the CLI
Checking service ICMP on IP 10.23.42.1 (1)
Package: example1 (2)
Monitor: org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.IcmpMonitor (3)
Parameter ds-name : icmp (4)
Parameter rrd-base-name : icmp (4)
Parameter rrd-repository : /var/lib/opennms/rrd/response (4)
Parameter retry : 2 (5)
Parameter timeout : 3000 (5)

Available ? true (status Up[1])
1 Service and IP Interface to run the test
2 Applied Service configuration from Polling Package for this test
3 Service Monitor used for this test
4 RRD configuration for response time measurement
5 Retry and timeout settings for this test

4.5.4. Test filters on Karaf Shell

Filters are ubiquitous in opennms configurations with <filter> syntax. This karaf shell can be used to verify filters. For more info, refer to Filters.

ssh -p 8101 admin@localhost

Once in the shell, print command help as follows

opennms> filters:filter --help
DESCRIPTION
        filters:filter
	Enumerates nodes/interfaces that match a give filter
SYNTAX
        filters:filter filterRule
ARGUMENTS
        filterRule
                A filter Rule

For ex: Run a filter rule that match a location

filters:filter  "location='MINION'"

Output is displayed as follows

nodeId=2 nodeLabel=00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000ddba11 location=MINION
	IpAddresses:
		127.0.0.1

Another ex: Run a filter that match a node location and for a given IP Address range. Refer to IPLIKE for more info on using IPLIKE syntax.

filters:filter "location='Default' & (IPADDR IPLIKE 172.*.*.*)"

Output is displayed as follows

nodeId=3 nodeLabel=label1 location=Default
	IpAddresses:
		172.10.154.1
		172.20.12.12
		172.20.2.14
		172.01.134.1
		172.20.11.15
		172.40.12.18

nodeId=5 nodeLabel=label2 location=Default
	IpAddresses:
		172.17.0.111

nodeId=6 nodeLabel=label3 location=Default
	IpAddresses:
		172.20.12.22
		172.17.0.123
Node info displayed will have nodeId, nodeLabel, location and optional fileds like foreignId, foreignSource, categories when they exist.

4.6. Service monitors

To support several specific applications and management agents, Pollerd executes Service Monitors. This section describes all available built-in Service Monitors which are available and can be configured to allow complex monitoring. For information how these can be extended, see Development Guide of the OpenNMS documentation.

4.6.1. Common Configuration Parameters

Application or Device specific Monitors are based on a generic API which provide common configuration parameters. These minimal configuration parameters are available in all Monitors and describe the behavior for timeouts, retries, etc.

Table 10. Common implemented configuration parameters
Parameter Description Required Default value

retry

Number of attempts to test a Service to be up or down.

optional

3

timeout

Timeout for the isReachable method, in milliseconds.

optional

3000

invert-status

Invert the up/down behavior of the monitor

optional

false

In case the Monitor is using the SNMP Protocol the default configuration for timeout and retry are used from the SNMP Configuration (snmp-config.xml).
Minion Configuration Parameters

When nodes are configured with a non-default location, the associated Service Monitors are executed on a Minion configured with that same location. If there are many Minions at a given location, the Service Monitor may be executed on any of the Minions that are currently available. Users can choose to execute a Service Monitor on a specific Minion, by specifying the System ID of the Minion. This mechanism is used for monitoring the Minions individually.

The following parameters can be used to override this behavior and control where the Service Monitors are executed.

Table 11. Minion configuration parameters
Parameter Description Required Default value

location

Specify the location at which the Service Monitor should be executed.

optional

(The location of the associated node)

system-id

Specify the System ID on which the Service Monitor should be executed

optional

(None)

use-foreign-id-as-system-id

Use the foreign id of the associated node as the System ID

optional

false

When specifying a System ID the location should also be set to the corresponding location for that system.

4.6.2. Using Placeholders in Parameters

Some monitor parameters support placeholder substitution. You can reference some node, interface, and asset record properties by enclosing them in { and }. The supported properties are:

  • nodeId

  • nodeLabel

  • foreignSource

  • foreignId

  • ipAddr (or ipAddress)

  • all node asset record fields (e.g. username, password)

Parameters that support placeholder substitution are marked 'Yes' in the 'Placeholder substitution' column of the Configuaration and Usage section of the monitor documentation.

4.6.3. AvailabilityMonitor

This monitor tests reachability of a node by using the isReachable method of the InetAddress java class. The service is considered available if isReachable returns true. See Oracle’s documentation for more details.

This monitor is deprecated in favour of the IcmpMonitor monitor. You should only use this monitor on remote pollers running on unusual configurations (See below for more details).
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.AvailabilityMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<service name="AVAIL" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="5000"/>
</service>

<monitor service="AVAIL" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.AvailabilityMonitor"/>
IcmpMonitor vs AvailabilityMonitor

This monitor has been developped in a time when the IcmpMonitor monitor wasn’t remote enabled, to circumvent this limitation. Now, with the JNA ICMP implementation, the IcmpMonitor monitor is remote enabled under most configurations and this monitor shouldn’t be needed -unless you’re running your remote poller on such an unusual configuration (See also issue NMS-6735 for more information)-.

4.6.4. BgpSessionMonitor

This monitor checks if a BGP-Session to a peering partner (peer-ip) is functional. To monitor the BGP-Session the RFC1269 SNMP MIB is used and test the status of the session using the following OIDs is used:

BGP_PEER_STATE_OID = .1.3.6.1.2.1.15.3.1.2.<peer-ip>
BGP_PEER_ADMIN_STATE_OID = .1.3.6.1.2.1.15.3.1.3.<peer-ip>
BGP_PEER_REMOTEAS_OID = .1.3.6.1.2.1.15.3.1.9.<peer-ip>
BGP_PEER_LAST_ERROR_OID = .1.3.6.1.2.1.15.3.1.14.<peer-ip>
BGP_PEER_FSM_EST_TIME_OID = .1.3.6.1.2.1.15.3.1.16.<peer-ip>

The <peer-ip> is the far end IP address of the BGP session end point.

A SNMP get request for BGP_PEER_STATE_OID returns a result between 1 to 6. The servicestates for OpenNMS Horizon are mapped as follows:

Result State description Monitor state in OpenNMS Horizon

1

Idle

DOWN

2

Connect

DOWN

3

Active

DOWN

4

OpenSent

DOWN

5

OpenConfirm

DOWN

6

Established

UP

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.BgpSessionMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

To define the mapping I used the description from RFC1771 BGP Finite State Machine.

Configuration and Usage
Parameter Description Required Default value

bgpPeerIp

IP address of the far end BGP peer session

required

-

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

To monitor the session state Established it is necessary to add a service to your poller configuration in '$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/poller-configuration.xml', for example:

<!-- Example configuration poller-configuration.xml -->
<service name="BGP-Peer-99.99.99.99-AS65423" interval="300000"
         user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2" />
    <parameter key="timeout" value="3000" />
    <parameter key="port" value="161" />
    <parameter key="bgpPeerIp" value="99.99.99.99" />
</service>

<monitor service="BGP-Peer-99.99.99.99-AS65423" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.BgpSessionMonitor" />
Error code mapping

The BGP_PEER_LAST_ERROR_OID gives an error in HEX-code. To make it human readable a codemapping table is implemented:

Error code Error Message

0100

Message Header Error

0101

Message Header Error - Connection Not Synchronized

0102

Message Header Error - Bad Message Length

0103

Message Header Error - Bad Message Type

0200

OPEN Message Error

0201

OPEN Message Error - Unsupported Version Number

0202

OPEN Message Error - Bad Peer AS

0203

OPEN Message Error - Bad BGP Identifier

0204

OPEN Message Error - Unsupported Optional Parameter

0205

OPEN Message Error (deprecated)

0206

OPEN Message Error - Unacceptable Hold Time

0300

UPDATE Message Error

0301

UPDATE Message Error - Malformed Attribute List

0302

UPDATE Message Error - Unrecognized Well-known Attribute

0303

UPDATE Message Error - Missing Well-known Attribute

0304

UPDATE Message Error - Attribute Flags Error

0305

UPDATE Message Error - Attribute Length Error

0306

UPDATE Message Error - Invalid ORIGIN Attribute

0307

UPDATE Message Error (deprecated)

0308

UPDATE Message Error - Invalid NEXT_HOP Attribute

0309

UPDATE Message Error - Optional Attribute Error

030A

UPDATE Message Error - Invalid Network Field

030B

UPDATE Message Error - Malformed AS_PATH

0400

Hold Timer Expired

0500

Finite State Machine Error

0600

Cease

0601

Cease - Maximum Number of Prefixes Reached

0602

Cease - Administrative Shutdown

0603

Cease - Peer De-configured

0604

Cease - Administrative Reset

0605

Cease - Connection Rejected

0606

Cease - Other Configuration Change

0607

Cease - Connection Collision Resolution

0608

Cease - Out of Resources

Instead of HEX-Code the error message will be displayed in the service down logmessage. To give some additional informations the logmessage contains also

BGP-Peer Adminstate
BGP-Peer Remote AS
BGP-Peer established time in seconds
Debugging

If you have problems to detect or monitor the BGP Session you can use the following command to figure out where the problem come from.

snmpwalk -v 2c -c <myCommunity> <myRouter2Monitor> .1.3.6.1.2.1.15.3.1.2.99.99.99.99

Replace 99.99.99.99 with your BGP-Peer IP. The result should be an Integer between 1 and 6.

4.6.5. BSFMonitor

This monitor runs a Bean Scripting Framework BSF compatible script to determine the status of a service. Users can write scripts to perform highly custom service checks. This monitor is not optimised for scale. It’s intended for a small number of custom checks or prototyping of monitors.

BSFMonitor vs SystemExecuteMonitor

The BSFMonitor avoids the overhead of fork(2) that is used by the SystemExecuteMonitor. BSFMonitor also grants access to a selection of OpenNMS Horizon internal methods and classes that can be used in the script.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.BSFMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 12. Monitor specific parameters for the BSFMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

file-name

Path to the script file.

required

-

bsf-engine

The BSF Engine to run the script in different languages like
Bean Shell: bsh.util.BeanShellBSFEngine
Groovy: org.codehaus.groovy.bsf.GroovyEngine
Jython: org.apache.bsf.engines.jython.JythonEngine

required

-

run-type

one of eval or exec

optional

eval

lang-class

The BSF language class, like groovy or beanshell.

optional

file-name extension is interpreted by default

file-extensions

comma-separated list

optional

-

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Table 13. Beans which can be used in the script
Variable Type Description

map

Map<String, Object>

The map contains all various parameters passed to the monitor from the service definition it the poller-configuration.xml file.

ip_addr

String

The IP address that is currently being polled.

node_id

int

The Node ID of the node the ip_addr belongs to.

node_label

String

The Node Label of the node the ip_addr and service belongs to.

svc_name

String

The name of the service that is being polled.

bsf_monitor

BSFMonitor

The instance of the BSFMonitor object calling the script. Useful for logging via its log(String sev, String fmt, Object... args) method.

results

HashMap<String, String>

The script is expected to put its results into this object. The status indication should be set into the entry with key status. If the status is not OK, a key reason should contain a description of the problem.

times

LinkedHashMap<String, Number>

The script is expected to put one or more response times into this object.

Additionally every parameter added to the service definition in poller-configuration.xml is available as a String object in the script. The key attribute of the parameter represents the name of the String object and the value attribute represents the value of the String object.

Please keep in mind, that these parameters are also accessible via the map bean.
Avoid non-character names for parameters to avoid problems in the script languages.
Response Codes

The script has to provide a status code that represents the status of the associated service. The following status codes are defined:

Table 14. Status codes
Code Description

OK

Service is available

UNK

Service status unknown

UNR

Service is unresponsive

NOK

Service is unavailable

Response time tracking

By default the BSFMonitor tracks the whole time the script file consumes as the response time. If the response time should be persisted the response time add the following parameters:

RRD response time tracking for this service in poller-configuration.xml
<!-- where in the filesystem response times are stored -->
<parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response" />

<!-- name of the rrd file -->
<parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="minimalbshbase" />

<!-- name of the data source in the rrd file -->
<!-- by default "response-time" is used as ds-name -->
<parameter key="ds-name" value="myResponseTime" />

It is also possible to return one or many response times directly from the script. To add custom response times or override the default one, add entries to the times object. The entries are keyed with a String that names the datasource and have as values a number that represents the response time. To override the default response time datasource add an entry into times named response-time.

Timeout and Retry

The BSFMonitor does not perform any timeout or retry processing on its own. If retry and or timeout behaviour is required, it has to be implemented in the script itself.

Requirements for the script (run-types)

Depending on the run-type the script has to provide its results in different ways. For minimal scripts with very simple logic run-type eval is the simple option. Scripts running in eval mode have to return a String matching one of the status codes.

If your script is more than a one-liner, run-type exec is essentially required. Scripts running in exec mode need not return anything, but they have to add a status entry with a status code to the results object. Additionally, the results object can also carry a "reason":"message" entry that is used in non OK states.

Commonly used language settings

The BSF supports many languages, the following table provides the required setup for commonly used languages.

Table 15. BSF language setups
Language lang-class bsf-engine required library

BeanShell

beanshell

bsh.util.BeanShellBSFEngine

supported by default

Groovy

groovy

org.codehaus.groovy.bsf.GroovyEngine

groovy-all-[version].jar

Jython

jython

org.apache.bsf.engines.jython.JythonEngine

jython-[version].jar

Example Bean Shell
BeanShell example poller-configuration.xml
<service name="MinimalBeanShell" interval="300000" user-defined="true" status="on">
  <parameter key="file-name"  value="/tmp/MinimalBeanShell.bsh"/>
  <parameter key="bsf-engine" value="bsh.util.BeanShellBSFEngine"/>
</service>

<monitor service="MinimalBeanShell" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.BSFMonitor" />
BeanShell example MinimalBeanShell.bsh script file
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "Starting MinimalBeanShell.bsf", null);
File testFile = new File("/tmp/TestFile");
if (testFile.exists()) {
  return "OK";
} else {
  results.put("reason", "file does not exist");
  return "NOK";
}
Example Groovy

To use the Groovy language an additional library is required. Copy a compatible groovy-all.jar into to opennms/lib folder and restart OpenNMS Horizon. That makes Groovy available for the BSFMonitor.

Groovy example poller-configuration.xml with default run-type set to eval
<service name="MinimalGroovy" interval="300000" user-defined="true" status="on">
  <parameter key="file-name"  value="/tmp/MinimalGroovy.groovy"/>
  <parameter key="bsf-engine" value="org.codehaus.groovy.bsf.GroovyEngine"/>
</service>

<monitor service="MinimalGroovy" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.BSFMonitor" />
Groovy example MinimalGroovy.groovy script file for run-type eval
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "Starting MinimalGroovy.groovy", null);
File testFile = new File("/tmp/TestFile");
if (testFile.exists()) {
  return "OK";
} else {
  results.put("reason", "file does not exist");
  return "NOK";
}
Groovy example poller-configuration.xml with run-type set to exec
<service name="MinimalGroovy" interval="300000" user-defined="true" status="on">
  <parameter key="file-name"  value="/tmp/MinimalGroovy.groovy"/>
  <parameter key="bsf-engine" value="org.codehaus.groovy.bsf.GroovyEngine"/>
  <parameter key="run-type" value="exec"/>
</service>

<monitor service="MinimalGroovy" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.BSFMonitor" />
Groovy example MinimalGroovy.groovy script file for run-type set to exec
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "Starting MinimalGroovy", null);
def testFile = new File("/tmp/TestFile");
if (testFile.exists()) {
  results.put("status", "OK")
} else {
  results.put("reason", "file does not exist");
  results.put("status", "NOK");
}
Example Jython

To use the Jython (Java implementation of Python) language an additional library is required. Copy a compatible jython-x.y.z.jar into the opennms/lib folder and restart OpenNMS Horizon. That makes Jython available for the BSFMonitor.

Jython example poller-configuration.xml with run-type exec
<service name="MinimalJython" interval="300000" user-defined="true" status="on">
  <parameter key="file-name"  value="/tmp/MinimalJython.py"/>
  <parameter key="bsf-engine" value="org.apache.bsf.engines.jython.JythonEngine"/>
  <parameter key="run-type" value="exec"/>
</service>

<monitor service="MinimalJython" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.BSFMonitor" />
Jython example MinimalJython.py script file for run-type set to exec
from java.io import File

bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "Starting MinimalJython.py", None);
if (File("/tmp/TestFile").exists()):
        results.put("status", "OK")
else:
        results.put("reason", "file does not exist")
        results.put("status", "NOK")
We have to use run-type exec here because Jython chokes on the import keyword in eval mode.
As proof that this is really Python, notice the substitution of Python’s None value for Java’s null in the log call.
Advanced examples

The following example references all beans that are exposed to the script, including a custom parameter.

Groovy example poller-configuration.xml
<service name="MinimalGroovy" interval="30000" user-defined="true" status="on">
  <parameter key="file-name"  value="/tmp/MinimalGroovy.groovy"/>
  <parameter key="bsf-engine" value="org.codehaus.groovy.bsf.GroovyEngine"/>

  <!-- custom parameters (passed to the script) -->
  <parameter key="myParameter" value="Hello Groovy" />

  <!-- optional for response time tracking -->
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response" />
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="minimalgroovybase" />
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="minimalgroovyds" />
</service>

<monitor service="MinimalGroovy" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.BSFMonitor" />
Groovy example Bean referencing script file
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "Starting MinimalGroovy", null);

//list of all available objects from the BSFMonitor
Map<String, Object> map = map;
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "---- map ----", null);
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", map.toString(), null);

String ip_addr = ip_addr;
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "---- ip_addr ----", null);
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", ip_addr, null);

int node_id = node_id;
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "---- node_id ----", null);
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", node_id.toString(), null);

String node_label = node_label;
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "---- node_label ----", null);
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", node_label, null);

String svc_name = svc_name;
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "---- svc_name ----", null);
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", svc_name, null);

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.BSFMonitor bsf_monitor = bsf_monitor;
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "---- bsf_monitor ----", null);
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", bsf_monitor.toString(), null);

HashMap<String, String> results = results;
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "---- results ----", null);
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", results.toString(), null);

LinkedHashMap<String, Number> times = times;
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "---- times ----", null);
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", times.toString(), null);

// reading a parameter from the service definition
String myParameter = myParameter;
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "---- myParameter ----", null);
bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", myParameter, null);

// minimal example
def testFile = new File("/tmp/TestFile");
if (testFile.exists()) {
  bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "Done MinimalGroovy ---- OK ----", null);
  return "OK";
} else {

  results.put("reason", "file does not exist");
  bsf_monitor.log("ERROR", "Done MinimalGroovy ---- NOK ----", null);
  return "NOK";
}

4.6.6. CiscoIpSlaMonitor

This monitor can be used to monitor IP SLA configurations on your Cisco devices. This monitor supports the following SNMP OIDS from CISCO-RTT-MON-MIB:

RTT_ADMIN_TAG_OID = .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.42.1.2.1.1.3
RTT_OPER_STATE_OID = .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.42.1.2.9.1.10
RTT_LATEST_OPERSENSE_OID = .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.42.1.2.10.1.2
RTT_ADMIN_THRESH_OID = .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.42.1.2.1.1.5
RTT_ADMIN_TYPE_OID = .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.42.1.2.1.1.4
RTT_LATEST_OID = .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.42.1.2.10.1.1

The monitor can be run in two scenarios. The first one tests the RTT_LATEST_OPERSENSE which is a sense code for the completion status of the latest RTT operation. If the RTT_LATEST_OPERSENSE returns ok(1) the service is marked as up.

The second scenario is to monitor the configured threshold in the IP SLA config. If the RTT_LATEST_OPERSENSE returns with overThreshold(3) the service is marked down.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.CiscoIpSlaMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 16. Monitor-specific parameters for the CiscoIpSlaMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

admin-tag

The tag attribute from your IP SLA configuration you want to monitor.

required

-

ignore-thresh

Boolean indicates if just the status or configured threshold should be monitored.

required

``

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Example for HTTP and ICMP echo reply

In this example we configure an IP SLA entry to monitor Google’s website with HTTP GET from the Cisco device. We use 8.8.8.8 as our DNS resolver. In our example our SLA says we should reach Google’s website within 200ms. To advise co-workers that this monitor entry is used for monitoring, I set the owner to OpenNMS. The tag is used to identify the entry later in the SNMP table for monitoring.

Cisco device configuration for IP SLA instance for HTTP GET
ip sla monitor 1
 type http operation get url http://www.google.de name-server 8.8.8.8
 timeout 3000
 threshold 200
 owner OpenNMS
 tag Google Website
ip sla monitor schedule 3 life forever start-time now

In the second example we configure a IP SLA to test if the IP address from www.opennms.org is reachable with ICMP from the perspective of the Cisco device. Like the example above we have a threshold and a timeout.

Cisco device configuration for IP SLA instance for ICMP monitoring.
ip sla 1
 icmp-echo 64.146.64.212
 timeout 3000
 threshold 150
 owner OpenNMS
 tag OpenNMS Host
ip sla schedule 1 life forever start-time now
It´s not possible to reconfigure an IP SLA entry. If you want to change parameters, you have to delete the whole configuration and reconfigure it with your new parameters. Backup your Cisco configuration manually or take a look at RANCID.

To monitor both of the entries the configuration in poller-configuration.xml requires two service definition entries:

<service name="IP-SLA-WEB-Google" interval="300000"
  user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2" />
    <parameter key="timeout" value="3000" />
    <parameter key="admin-tag" value="Google Website" />
    <parameter key="ignore-thresh" value="false" />(1)
</service>
<service name="IP-SLA-PING-OpenNMS" interval="300000"
  user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2" />
    <parameter key="timeout" value="3000" />
    <parameter key="admin-tag" value="OpenNMS Host" />
    <parameter key="ignore-thresh" value="true" />(2)
</service>

<monitor service="IP-SLA-WEB-Google" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.CiscoIpSlaMonitor" />
<monitor service="IP-SLA-PING-OpenNMS" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.CiscoIpSlaMonitor" />
1 Service is up if the IP SLA state is ok(1)
2 Service is down if the IP SLA state is overThreshold(3)

4.6.7. CiscoPingMibMonitor

This poller monitor’s purpose is to create conceptual rows (entries) in the ciscoPingTable on Cisco IOS devices that support the CISCO-PING-MIB. These entries direct the remote IOS device to ping an IPv4 or IPv6 address with a configurable set of parameters. After the IOS device has completed the requested ping operations, the poller monitor queries the IOS device to determine the results. If the results indicate success according to the configured parameters in the service configuration, then the monitored service is reported as available and the results are available for optional time-series (RRD) storage. If the results indicate failure, the monitored service is reported unavailable with a descriptive reason code. If something goes wrong during the setup of the entry or the subsequent querying of its status, the monitored service is reported to be in an unknown state.

Unlike most poller monitors, the CiscoPingMibMonitor does not interpret the timeout and retries parameters to determine when a poll attempt has timed out or whether it should be attempted again. The packet-count and packet-timeout parameters instead service this purpose from the perspective of the remote IOS device.
Supported MIB OIDs from CISCO_PING_MIB
 ciscoPingEntry             1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1
 ciscoPingSerialNumber      1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.1
 ciscoPingProtocol          1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.2
 ciscoPingAddress           1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.3
 ciscoPingPacketCount       1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.4
 ciscoPingPacketSize        1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.5
 ciscoPingPacketTimeout     1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.6
 ciscoPingDelay             1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.7
 ciscoPingTrapOnCompletion  1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.8
 ciscoPingSentPackets       1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.9
 ciscoPingReceivedPackets   1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.10
 ciscoPingMinRtt            1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.11
 ciscoPingAvgRtt            1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.12
 ciscoPingMaxRtt            1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.13
 ciscoPingCompleted         1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.14
 ciscoPingEntryOwner        1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.15
 ciscoPingEntryStatus       1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.16
 ciscoPingVrfName           1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.16.1.1.1.17
Prerequisites
  • One or more Cisco devices running an IOS image of recent vintage; any 12.2 or later image is probably fine. Even very low-end devices appear to support the CISCO-PING-MIB.

  • The IOS devices that will perform the remote pings must be configured with an SNMP write community string whose source address access-list includes the address of the OpenNMS Horizon server and whose MIB view (if any) includes the OID of the ciscoPingTable.

  • The corresponding SNMP write community string must be specified in the write-community attribute of either the top-level <snmp-config> element of snmp-config.xml or a <definition> child element that applies to the SNMP-primary interface of the IOS device(s) that will perform the remote pings.

Scalability concerns

This monitor spends a fair amount of time sleeping while it waits for the remote IOS device to complete the requested ping operations. The monitor is pessimistic in calculating the delay between creation of the ciscoPingTable entry and its first attempt to retrieve the results of that entry’s ping operations — it will always wait at least (packet-count * (packet-timeout + packet-delay)) milliseconds before even checking whether the remote pings have completed. It’s therefore prone to hogging poller threads if used with large values for the packet-count, packet-timeout, and/or packet-delay parameters. Keep these values as small as practical to avoid tying up poller threads unnecessarily.

This monitor always uses the current time in whole seconds since the UNIX epoch as the instance identifier of the ciscoPingTable entries that it creates. The object that holds this identifier is a signed 32-bit integer type, precluding a finer resolution. It’s probably a good idea to mix in the least-significant byte of the millisecond-accurate time as a substitute for that of the whole-second-accurate value to avoid collisions. IOS seems to clean up entries in this table within a manner of minutes after their ping operations have completed.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.CiscoPingMibMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 17. Monitor specific parameters for the CiscoPingMibMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

version

SNMP protocol version (1, 2c, or 3) to use for operations performed by this service monitor. Do not use with out a very good reason to do so.

optional

from snmp-config.xml

packet-count

Number of ping packets that the remote IOS device should send.

optional

5

packet-size

Size, in bytes, of each ping packet that the remote IOS device should send.

optional

100

packet-timeout

Timeout, in milliseconds, of each ping packet sent by the remote IOS device.

optional

2000

packet-delay

Delay, in milliseconds, between ping packets sent by the remote IOS device.

optional

0

entry-owner

String value to set as the value of ciscoPingEntryOwner of entries created for this service.

optional

OpenNMS CiscoPingMibMonitor

vrf-name

String value to set as the VRF (VLAN) name in whose context the remote IOS device should perform the pings for this service.

optional

empty String

proxy-node-id

Numeric database identifier of the node whose primary SNMP interface should be used as the proxy for this service. If specified along with the related proxy-node-foreign-source, proxy-node-foreign-id, and/or proxy-ip-addr, this parameter will be the effective one.

optional

-

proxy-node-foreign-source
proxy-node-foreign-id

foreign-source name and foreign-ID of the node whose primary SNMP interface should be used as the "proxy" for this service. These two parameters are corequisites. If they appear along with the related proxy-ip-addr, these parameters will be the effective ones.

optional

-

proxy-ip-addr

IP address of the interface that should be used as the proxy for this service. Effective only if none of proxy-node-id, proxy-node-foreign-source, nor proxy-node-foreign-id appears alongside this parameter. A value of ${ipaddr} will be substituted with the IP address of the interface on which the monitored service appears.

optional

-

target-ip-addr

IP address that the remote IOS device should ping. A value of ${ipaddr} will be substituted with the IP address of the interface on which the monitored service appears.

optional

-

success-percent

A whole-number percentage of pings that must succeed (from the perspective of the remote IOS device) in order for this service to be considered available. As an example, if packet-count is left at its default value of 5 but you wish the service to be considered available even if only one of those five pings is successful, then set this parameter’s value to 20.

optional

100

rrd-repository

Base directory of an RRD repository in which to store this service monitor’s response-time samples

optional

-

ds-name

Name of the RRD datasource (DS) name in which to store this service monitor’s response-time samples; rrd-base-name Base name of the RRD file (minus the .rrd or .jrb file extension) within the specified rrd-repository path in which this service monitor’s response-time samples will be persisted

optional

-

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

This is optional just if you can use variables in the configuration.

Table 18. Variables which can be used in the configuration
Variable Description

${ipaddr}

This value will be substituted with the IP address of the interface on which the monitored service appears.

Example: Ping the same non-routable address from all routers of customer Foo

A service provider’s client, Foo Corporation, has network service at multiple locations. At each Foo location, a point-of-sale system is statically configured at IPv4 address 192.168.255.1. Foo wants to be notified any time a point-of-sale system becomes unreachable. Using an OpenNMS Horizon remote location monitor is not feasible. All of Foo Corporation’s CPE routers must be Cisco IOS devices in order to achieve full coverage in this scenario.

One approach to this requirement is to configure all of Foo Corporation’s premise routers to be in the surveillance categories Customer_Foo, CPE, and Routers, and to use a filter to create a poller package that applies only to those routers. We will use the special value ${ipaddr} for the proxy-ip-addr parameter so that the remote pings will be provisioned on each Foo CPE router. Since we want each Foo CPE router to ping the same IP address 192.168.255.1, we statically list that value for the target-ip-addr address.

<package name="ciscoping-foo-pos">
  <filter>catincCustomer_Foo & catincCPE & catincRouters & nodeSysOID LIKE '.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.%'</filter>
  <include-range begin="0.0.0.0" end="254.254.254.254" />
  <rrd step="300">
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:1488</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:366</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:366</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:366</rra>
  </rrd>
  <service name="FooPOS" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response" />
    <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="ciscoping" />
    <parameter key="ds-name" value="ciscoping" />
    <parameter key="proxy-ip-addr" value="${ipaddr}" />
    <parameter key="target-ip-addr" value="192.168.255.1" />
  </service>
  <downtime interval="30000" begin="0" end="300000" /><!-- 30s, 0, 5m -->
  <downtime interval="300000" begin="300000" end="43200000" /><!-- 5m, 5m, 12h -->
  <downtime interval="600000" begin="43200000" end="432000000" /><!-- 10m, 12h, 5d -->
  <downtime begin="432000000" delete="true" /><!-- anything after 5 days delete -->
</package>

<monitor service="FooPOS" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.CiscoPingMibMonitor" />
Example: Ping from a single IOS device routable address of each router of customer Bar

A service provider’s client, Bar Limited, has network service at multiple locations. While OpenNMS Horizon' world-class service assurance is generally sufficient, Bar also wants to be notified any time a premise router at one of their locations unreachable from the perspective of an IOS device in Bar’s main data center. Some or all of the Bar Limited CPE routers may be non-Cisco devices in this scenario.

To meet this requirement, our approach is to configure Bar Limited’s premise routers to be in the surveillance categories Customer_Bar, CPE, and Routers, and to use a filter to create a poller package that applies only to those routers. This time, though, we will use the special value ${ipaddr} not in the proxy-ip-addr parameter but in the target-ip-addr parameter so that the remote pings will be performed for each Bar CPE router. Since we want the same IOS device 20.11.5.11 to ping the CPE routers, we statically list that value for the proxy-ip-addr address. Example poller-configuration.xml additions

<package name="ciscoping-bar-cpe">
  <filter>catincCustomer_Bar & catincCPE & catincRouters</filter>
  <include-range begin="0.0.0.0" end="254.254.254.254" />
  <rrd step="300">
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:1488</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:366</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:366</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:366</rra>
  </rrd>
  <service name="BarCentral" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response" />
    <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="ciscoping" />
    <parameter key="ds-name" value="ciscoping" />
    <parameter key="proxy-ip-addr" value="20.11.5.11" />
    <parameter key="target-ip-addr" value="${ipaddr}" />
  </service>
  <downtime interval="30000" begin="0" end="300000" /><!-- 30s, 0, 5m -->
  <downtime interval="300000" begin="300000" end="43200000" /><!-- 5m, 5m, 12h -->
  <downtime interval="600000" begin="43200000" end="432000000" /><!-- 10m, 12h, 5d -->
  <downtime begin="432000000" delete="true" /><!-- anything after 5 days delete -->
</package>

<monitor service="BarCentral" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.CiscoPingMibMonitor" />

4.6.8. CitrixMonitor

This monitor is used to test if a Citrix® Server or XenApp Server® is providing the Independent Computing Architecture (ICA) protocol on TCP 1494. The monitor opens a TCP socket and tests the greeting banner returns with ICA, otherwise the service is unavailable.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.CitrixMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 19. Monitor specific parameters for the CitrixMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

port

TCP port where the ICA protocol is listening.

optional

1494

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

If you have configure the Metaframe Presentation Server Client using Session Reliability, the TCP port is 2598 instead of 1494. You can find additional information on CTX104147. It is not verified if the monitor works in this case.
Examples

The following example configures OpenNMS Horizon to monitor the ICA protocol on TCP 1494 with 2 retries and waiting 5 seconds for each retry.

<service name="Citrix-TCP-ICA" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2" />
    <parameter key="timeout" value="5000" />
</service>

<monitor service="Citrix-TCP-ICA" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.CitrixMonitor" />

4.6.9. DhcpMonitor

This monitor is used to monitor the availability and functionality of DHCP servers. This monitor has two parts, the first one is the monitor class DhcpMonitor executed by Pollerd and the second part is a background daemon Dhcpd running inside the OpenNMS Horizon JVM and listening for DHCP responses. A DHCP server is tested by sending a DISCOVER message. If the DHCP server responds with an OFFER the service is marked as up. The Dhcpd background daemon is disabled by default and has to be activated in service-configuration.xml in OpenNMS Horizon by setting service enabled="true". The behavior for testing the DHCP server can be modified in the dhcp-configuration.xml configuration file.

It is required to install the opennms-plugin-protocol-dhcp before you can use this feature.
Installing the opennms-plugin-protocol-dhcp package
{apt-get,yum} install {opennms-package-base-name}-plugin-protocol-dhcp

If you try to start OpenNMS Horizon without the opennms-plugin-protocol-dhcp you will see the following error message in output.log:

An error occurred while attempting to start the "OpenNMS:Name=Dhcpd" service (class org.opennms.netmgt.dhcpd.jmx.Dhcpd).  Shutting down and exiting.
java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: org.opennms.netmgt.dhcpd.jmx.Dhcpd
Make sure no DHCP client is running on the OpenNMS Horizon server and using port UDP/68. If UDP/68 is already in use, you will find an error message in the manager.log. You can test if a process is listening on udp/68 with sudo ss -lnpu sport = :68.
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.protocols.dhcp.monitor.DhcpMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Table 20. Service monitor parameters configured in poller-configuration.xml
Parameter Description Required Default value

retry

Number of retries before the service is marked as down

optional

0

rrd-repository

The location to write RRD data. Generally, you will not want to change this from default

optional

$OPENNMS_HOME/share/rrd/response

rrd-base-name

The name of the RRD file to write (minus the extension, .rrd or .jrb)

optional

dhcp

ds-name

This is the name as reference for this particular data source in the RRD file

optional

dhcp

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Dhcpd configuration
Table 21. Dhcpd parameters in dhcp-configuration.xml.

Parameter

Description

Required

Default value

port

Defines the port your dhcp server is using

required

5818

macAddress

The MAC address which OpenNMS Horizon uses for a dhcp request

required

00:06:0D:BE:9C:B2

myIpAddress

This parameter will usually be set to the IP address of the OpenNMS Horizon server, which puts the DHCP poller in relay mode as opposed to broadcast mode. In relay mode, the DHCP server being polled will unicast its responses directly back to the IP address specified by myIpAddress rather than broadcasting its responses. This allows DHCP servers to be polled even though they are not on the same subnet as the OpenNMS Horizon server, and without the aid of an external relay. Usage: myIpAddress="10.11.12.13" or myIpAddress="broadcast"

required

broadcast

extendedMode

When extendedMode is false, the DHCP poller will send a DISCOVER and expect an OFFER in return. When extendedMode is true, the DHCP poller will first send a DISCOVER. If no valid response is received it will send an INFORM. If no valid response is received it will then send a REQUEST. OFFER, ACK, and NAK are all considered valid responses in extendedMode. Usage: extendedMode="true" or extendedMode="false"

required

false

requestIpAddress

This parameter only applies to REQUEST queries sent to the DHCP server when extendedMode is true. If an IP address is specified, that IP address will be requested in the query. If targetHost is specified, the DHCP server’s own IP address will be requested. Since a well-managed server will probably not respond to a request for its own IP, this parameter can also be set to targetSubnet. This is similar to targetHost except the DHCP server’s IP address is incremented or decremented by 1 to obtain an ip address that is on the same subnet. (The resulting address will not be on the same subnet if the DHCP server’s subnet is a /32 or /31. Otherwise, the algorithm used should be reliable.) Usage: requestIpAddress="10.77.88.99" or requestIpAddress="targetHost" or requestIpAddress="targetSubnet"

required

false

02 01 dhcp monitor messages broadcast
Figure 28. Visualization of DHCP message flow in broadcast mode
02 02 dhcp monitor messages unicast
Figure 29. Visualization of DHCP message flow in relay mode
Example testing DHCP server in the same subnet

Example configuration how to configure the monitor in the poller-configuration.xml. The monitor will try to send in maximum 3 DISCOVER messages and waits 3 seconds for the DHCP server OFFER message.

Step 1: Configure a DHCP service in poller-configuration.xml
<service name="DHCP" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
 <parameter key="retry" value="2" />
 <parameter key="timeout" value="3000" />
 <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response" />
 <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="dhcp" />
 <parameter key="ds-name" value="dhcp" />
</service>

<monitor service="DHCP" class-name="org.opennms.protocols.dhcp.monitor.DhcpMonitor"/>
Step 2: Enable the OpenNMS Horizon Dhcpd daemon in service-configuration.xml
<service enabled="true">
  <name>OpenNMS:Name=Dhcpd</name>
  <class-name>org.opennms.netmgt.dhcpd.jmx.Dhcpd</class-name>
  <invoke method="start" pass="1" at="start"/>
  <invoke method="status" pass="0" at="status"/>
  <invoke method="stop" pass="0" at="stop"/>
</service>
Step 3: Configure Dhcpd to test a DHCP server in the same subnet as the OpenNMS Horizon server.
<DhcpdConfiguration
       port="5818"
       macAddress="00:06:0D:BE:9C:B2"
       myIpAddress="broadcast
       extendedMode="false"
       requestIpAddress="127.0.0.1">
</DhcpdConfiguration>
Example testing DHCP server in a different subnet in extended mode

You can use the same monitor in poller-configuration.xml as in the example above.

Configure Dhcpd to test DHCP server in a different subnet. The OFFER from the DHCP server is sent to myIpAddress.
<DhcpdConfiguration
       port="5818"
       macAddress="00:06:0D:BE:9C:B2"
       myIpAddress="10.4.1.234"
       extendedMode="true"
       requestIpAddress="targetSubnet">
</DhcpdConfiguration>
If in extendedMode, the time required to complete the poll for an unresponsive node is increased by a factor of 3. Thus it is a good idea to limit the number of retries to a small number.

4.6.10. DiskUsageMonitor

The DiskUsageMonitor monitor can be used to test the amount of free space available on certain storages of a node. The monitor gets information about the available free storage spaces available by inspecting the hrStorageTable of the HOST-RESOURCES-MIB. A storage’s description (as found in the corresponding hrStorageDescr object) must match the criteria specified by the disk and match-type parameters to be monitored. A storage’s available free space is calculated using the corresponding hrStorageSize and hrStorageUsed objects.

The hrStorageUsed doesn’t account for filesystem reserved blocks (i.e. for the super-user), so DiskUsageMonitor will report the service as unavailable only when the amount of free disk space is actually lower than free minus the percentage of reserved filesystem blocks.

This monitor uses SNMP to accomplish its work. Therefore systems against which it is to be used must have an SNMP agent supporting the HOST-RESOURCES-MIB installed and configured. Most modern SNMP agents, including most distributions of the Net-SNMP agent and the SNMP service that ships with Microsoft Windows, support this MIB. Out-of-box support for HOST-RESOURCES-MIB among commercial Unix operating systems may be somewhat spotty.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.DiskUsageMonitor

Remote Enabled

false, relies on SNMP configuration.

Configuration and Usage
Table 22. Monitor specific parameters for the DiskUsageMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

disk

A pattern that a storage’s description (hrStorageDescr) must match to be taken into account.

required

-

free

The minimum amount of free space that storages matching the criteria must have available. This parameter is evaluated as a percent of the storage’s reported maximum capacity.

optional

15

match-type

The way how the pattern specified by the disk parameter must be compared to storages description Must be one of the following symbolic operators:
endswith : The disk parameter’s value is evaluated as a string that storages' description must end with;
exact : The disk parameter’s value is evaluated as a string that storages" description must exactly match;
regex : The disk parameter’s value is evaluated as a regular expression that storages' description must match;
startswith : The disk parameter’s value is evaluated as a string that storages' description must start with.
Note: Comparisons are case-sensitive

optional

exact

port

Destination port where the SNMP requests shall be sent.

optional

from snmp-config.xml

retries

Deprecated. Same as retry. Parameter retry takes precedence when both are set.

optional

from snmp-config.xml

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<!-- Make sure there's at least 5% of free space available on storages ending with "/home" -->
<service name="DiskUsage-home" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000" />
  <parameter key="retry" value="2" />
  <parameter key="disk" value="/home" />
  <parameter key="match-type" value="endsWith" />
  <parameter key="free" value="5" />
</service>
<monitor service="DiskUsage-home" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.DiskUsageMonitor" />
DiskUsageMonitor vs thresholds

Storages' available free space can also be monitored using thresholds if you are already collecting these data.

4.6.11. DnsMonitor

This monitor is build to test the availability of the DNS service on remote IP interfaces. The monitor tests the service availability by sending a DNS query for A resource record types against the DNS server to test.

The monitor is marked as up if the DNS Server is able to send a valid response to the monitor. For multiple records it is possible to test if the number of responses are within a given boundary.

The monitor can be simulated with the command line tool host:

~ % host -v -t a www.google.com 8.8.8.8
Trying "www.google.com"
Using domain server:
Name: 8.8.8.8
Address: 8.8.8.8#53
Aliases:

;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 9324
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 5, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;www.google.com.			IN	A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
www.google.com.		283	IN	A	74.125.232.17
www.google.com.		283	IN	A	74.125.232.20
www.google.com.		283	IN	A	74.125.232.19
www.google.com.		283	IN	A	74.125.232.16
www.google.com.		283	IN	A	74.125.232.18

Received 112 bytes from 8.8.8.8#53 in 41 ms

TIP: This monitor is intended for testing the availability of a DNS service. If you want to monitor the DNS resolution of some of your nodes from a client’s perspective, please use the DNSResolutionMonitor.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.DnsMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 23. Monitor specific parameters for the DnsMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

retry

Number of retries before the service is marked as down

optional

0

timeout

Time in milliseconds to wait for the A Record response from the server

optional

5000

port

UDP Port for the DNS server

optional

53

lookup

DNS A Record for lookup test

optional

localhost

fatal-response-codes

A comma-separated list of numeric DNS response codes that will be considered fatal if present in the server’s response. Default value is 2 corresponds to Server Failed. A list of codes and their meanings is found in RFC 2929

optional

2

min-answers

Minmal number of records in the DNS server respone for the given lookup

optional

-

max-answers

Maximal number of records in the DNS server respone for the given lookup

optional

-

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

The given examples shows how to monitor if the IP interface from a given DNS server resolves a DNS request. This service should be bound to a DNS server which should be able to give a valid DNS respone for DNS request www.google.com. The service is up if the DNS server gives between 1 and 10 A record responses.

Example configuration monitoring DNS request for a given server for www.google.com
<service name="DNS-www.google.com" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="lookup" value="www.google.com" />
    <parameter key="fatal-response-code" value="2" />
    <parameter key="min-answers" value="1" />
    <parameter key="max-answers" value="10" />
</service>

<monitor service="DNS-www.google.com" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.DnsMonitor" />

4.6.12. DNSResolutionMonitor

The DNS resolution monitor, tests if the node label of an OpenNMS Horizon node can be resolved. This monitor uses the name resolver configuration from the poller configuration or from the operating system where OpenNMS Horizon is running on. It can be used to test a client behavior for a given host name. For example: Create a node with the node label www.google.com and an IP interface. Assigning the DNS resolution monitor on the IP interface will test if www.google.com can be resolved using the DNS configuration defined by the poller. The response from the A record lookup can be any address, it is not verified with the IP address on the OpenNMS Horizon IP interface where the monitor is assigned to. This monitor implements placeholder substitution in parameter values.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.DNSResolutionMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 24. Monitor specific parameters for the DNSResolutionMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value Placeholder substitution

resolution-type

Type of record for the node label test.
Allowed values
v4 for A records,
v6 for AAAA record,
both A and AAAA record must be available,
either A or AAAA record must be available.

optional

either

No

record-types

Alternate DNS record types to search for.
The comma separated list can contain A,
AAAA, CNAME, NS, MX, PTR, SOA,
SRV, or TXT.

optional

``

No

lookup

Alternate DNS record to lookup

optional

The node label.

Yes

nameserver

The DNS server to query for the records.
The string can be in the form of hostname,
hostname:port, or [ipv6address]:port.

optional

Use name server from host system running OpenNMS Horizon

Yes

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

The following example shows the possibilities monitoring IPv4 and/or IPv6 for the service configuration:

<!-- Assigned service test if the node label is resolved for an A record -->
<service name="DNS-Resolution-v4" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="2000"/>
    <parameter key="resolution-type" value="v4"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="dns-res-v4"/>
    <parameter key="ds-name" value="dns-res-v4"/>
</service>

<!-- Assigned service test if www.google.com is resolved for an A record -->
<service name="DNS-Resolution-v4-lookup" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="2000"/>
    <parameter key="resolution-type" value="v4"/>
    <parameter key="lookup" value="www.google.com"/>
</service>

<!-- Assigned service test if the node label is resolved for an AAAA record using a specific DNS server -->
<service name="DNS-Resolution-v6" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="2000"/>
    <parameter key="resolution-type" value="v6"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="dns-res-v6"/>
    <parameter key="ds-name" value="dns-res-v6"/>
    <parameter key="nameserver" value="8.8.8.8"/>
</service>

<!-- Use parameter substitution for nameserver and lookup parameter values -->
<service name="DNS-Resolution-Sub" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="2000"/>
    <parameter key="resolution-type" value="v6"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="dns-res-v6"/>
    <parameter key="ds-name" value="dns-res-v6"/>
    <parameter key="nameserver" value="{ipAddr}"/>
    <parameter key="lookup" value="{nodeLabel}"/>
</service>

<!-- Assigned service test if the node label is resolved for an AAAA record AND A record -->
<service name="DNS-Resolution-v4-and-v6" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="2000"/>
    <parameter key="resolution-type" value="both"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="dns-res-both"/>
    <parameter key="ds-name" value="dns-res-both"/>
</service>

<!-- Assigned service test if the node label is resolved for an AAAA record OR A record -->
<service name="DNS-Resolution-v4-or-v6" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="2000"/>
    <parameter key="resolution-type" value="either"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="dns-res-either"/>
    <parameter key="ds-name" value="dns-res-either"/>
</service>

<!-- Assigned service test if the node label is resolved for an CNAME record AND MX record -->
<service name="DNS-Resolution-CNAME-and-MX" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="2000"/>
    <parameter key="record-types" value="CNAME,MX"/>
    <parameter key="lookup" value="www.google.comm"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="dns-res-cname-mx"/>
    <parameter key="ds-name" value="dns-res-cname-mx"/>
</service>

<monitor service="DNS-Resolution-v4" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.DNSResolutionMonitor" />
<monitor service="DNS-Resolution-v4-lookup" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.DNSResolutionMonitor" />
<monitor service="DNS-Resolution-v6" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.DNSResolutionMonitor" />
<monitor service="DNS-Resolution-Sub" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.DNSResolutionMonitor" />
<monitor service="DNS-Resolution-v4-and-v6" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.DNSResolutionMonitor" />
<monitor service="DNS-Resolution-v4-or-v6" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.DNSResolutionMonitor" />
<monitor service="DNS-Resolution-CNAME-and-MX" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.DNSResolutionMonitor" />

To have response time graphs for the name resolution you have to configure RRD graphs for the given ds-names (dns-res-v4, dns-res-v6, dns-res-both, dns-res-either, dns-res-cname-mx) in '$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/response-graph.properties'.

DNSResolutionMonitor vs DnsMonitor

The DNSResolutionMonitor is used to measure the availability and record outages of a name resolution from client perspective. The service is mainly used for websites or similar public available resources. It can be used in combination with the Page Sequence Monitor to give a hint if a website isn’t available for DNS reasons.

The DnsMonitor on the other hand is a test against a specific DNS server. In OpenNMS Horizon the DNS server is the node and the DnsMonitor will send a lookup request for a given A record to the DNS server IP address. The service goes down if the DNS server doesn’t have a valid A record in his zone database or as some other issues resolving A records.

4.6.13. FtpMonitor

The FtpMonitor is able to validate ftp connection dial-up processes. The monitor can test ftp server on multiple ports and specific login data.

The service using the FtpMonitor is up if the FTP server responds with return codes between 200 and 299. For special cases the service is also marked as up for 425 and 530.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.FtpMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 25. Monitor specific parameters for the FtpMonitor.
Parameter Description Required Default value Placeholder substitution

retry

Number of attempts to get a valid FTP response/response-text

optional

0

No

port

A list of TCP ports to which connection shall be tried.

optional

20,21

No

password

This parameter is meant to be used together with the userid parameter to perform authentication. This parameter specifies the password to be used.

optional

empty string

Yes

userid

This parameter is meant to be used together with the password parameter to perform authentication. This parameter specifies the user ID to be used.

optional

-

Yes

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

Some example configuration how to configure the monitor in the 'poller-configuration.xml'

<service name="FTP" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
 <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
 <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
 <parameter key="port" value="21"/>
 <parameter key="userid" value=""/>
 <parameter key="password" value=""/>
</service>

<service name="FTP-With-Auth-From-Asset" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
 <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
 <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
 <parameter key="port" value="21"/>
 <parameter key="userid" value="{username}"/>
 <parameter key="password" value="{password}"/>
</service>

<service name="FTP-Customer" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
 <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
 <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
 <parameter key="port" value="21"/>
 <parameter key="userid" value="Customer"/>
 <parameter key="password" value="MySecretPassword"/>
</service>

<monitor service="FTP" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.FtpMonitor"/>
<monitor service="FTP-With-Auth-From-Asset" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.FtpMonitor"/>
<monitor service="FTP-Customer" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.FtpMonitor"/>
Hint

Comment from FtpMonitor source

Also want to accept the following ERROR message generated by some FTP servers following a QUIT command without a previous successful login: "530 QUIT : User not logged in. Please login with USER and PASS first."

Also want to accept the following ERROR message generated by some FTP servers following a QUIT command without a previously successful login: "425 Session is disconnected."

4.6.14. HostResourceSwRunMonitor

This monitor test the running state of one or more processes. It does this via SNMP by inspecting the hrSwRunTable of the HOST-RESOURCES-MIB. The test is done by matching a given process as hrSwRunName against the numeric value of the hrSwRunState.

This monitor uses SNMP to accomplish its work. Therefore systems against which it is to be used must have an SNMP agent installed and configured. Furthermore, the SNMP agent on the system must support the HOST-RESOURCES-MIB. Most modern SNMP agents, including most distributions of the Net-SNMP agent and the SNMP service that ships with Microsoft Windows, support this MIB. Out-of-box support for HOST-RESOURCES-MIB among commercial Unix operating systems may be somewhat spotty.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HostResourceSwRunMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 26. Monitor specific parameters for the HostResourceSwRunMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

port

The port of the SNMP agent of the server to test.

optional

from snmp-config.xml

service-name

The name of the process to be monitored. This parameter’s value is case-sensitive and is evaluated as an exact match.

required

-

match-all

If the process name appears multiple times in the hrSwRunTable, and this parameter is set to true, then all instances of the named process must match the value specified for run-level.

optional

false

run-level

The maximum allowable value of hrSWRunStatus among
running(1),
runnable(2) = waiting for resource
notRunnable(3) = loaded but waiting for event
invalid(4) = not loaded

optional

2

service-name-oid

The numeric object identifier (OID) from which process names are queried. Defaults to hrSwRunName and should never be changed under normal circumstances. That said, changing it to hrSwRunParameters (.1.3.6.1.2.1.25.4.2.1.5) is often helpful when dealing with processes running under Java Virtual Machines which all have the same process name java.

optional

.1.3.6.1.2.1.25.4.2.1.2

service-status-oid

The numeric object identifier (OID) from which run status is queried. Defaults to hrSwRunStatus and should never be changed under normal circumstances.

optional

.1.3.6.1.2.1.25.4.2.1.7

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

The following example shows how to monitor the process called httpd running on a server using this monitor. The configuration in poller-configuration.xml has to be defined as the following:

<service name="Process-httpd" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="3"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
    <parameter key="service-name" value="httpd"/>(1)
    <parameter key="run-level" value="3"/>(2)
    <parameter key="match-all" value="true"/>(3)
</service>

<monitor service="Process-httpd" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HostResourceSwRunMonitor"/>
1 Name of the process on the system
2 Test the state if the process is in a valid state, i.e. have a run-level no higher than notRunnable(3)
3 If the httpd process runs multiple times the test is done for each instance of the process.

4.6.15. HttpMonitor

The HTTP monitor tests the response of an HTTP server on a specific HTTP 'GET' command. During the poll, an attempt is made to connect on the specified port(s). The monitor can test web server on multiple ports. By default the test is made against port 80, 8080 and 8888. If the connection request is successful, an HTTP 'GET' command is sent to the interface. The response is parsed and a return code extracted and verified. This monitor implements placeholder substitution in parameter values.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HttpMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 27. Monitor specific parameters for the HttpMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value Placeholder substitution

basic-authentication

Authentication credentials to perform basic authentication.
Credentials should comply to RFC1945 section 11.1, without the Base64 encoding part. That’s: be a string made of the concatenation of:
1- the user ID;
2- a colon;
3- the password.
basic-authentication takes precedence over the user and password parameters.

optional

-

Yes

header[0-9]+

Additional headers to be sent along with the request.
Example of valid parameter’s names are
header0, header1 and header180. header is not a valid parameter name.

optional

-

No

host-name

Specify the Host header’s value.

optional

-

No

nodelabel-host-name

If the host-name parameter isn’t set and the resolve-ip parameter is set to false, then OpenNMS Horizon will use the node’s label to set the Host header’s value if this parameter is set to true. Otherwise, OpenNMS Horizon will fall back using the node interface’s IP address as Host header value.

optional

false

No

password

This parameter is meant to be used together with the user parameter to perform basic
authentication. This parameter specifies the password to be used. The user and password
parameters are ignored when the basic-authentication parameter is defined.

optional

empty string

Yes

port

A list of TCP ports to which connection shall be tried.

optional

80,8080,8888

No

retry

Number of attempts to get a valid HTTP response/response-text

optional

0

No

resolve-ip

If the host-name parameter isn’t set and this parameter is set to true, OpenNMS Horizon will use DNS to resolve the node interface’s IP address, and use the result to set the Host header’s value. When set to false and the host-name parameter isn’t set, OpenNMS Horizon will try to use the nodelabel-host-name parameter to set the Host header’s value.

optional

false

No

response

A comma-separated list of acceptable HTTP response code ranges. Example: 200-202,299

optional

If the url parameter is set to /, the default
value for this parameter is 100-499, otherwise it’s 100-399.

No

response-text

Text to look for in the response body. This will be matched against every line, and it will be considered a success at the first match. If there is a ~ at the beginning of the parameter, the rest of the string will be used as a regular expression pattern match, otherwise the match will be a substring match. The regular expression match is anchored at the beginning and end of the line, so you will likely need to put a .* on both sides of your pattern unless you are going to be matching on the entire line.

optional

-

No

url

URL to be retrieved via the HTTP 'GET' command

optional

/

Yes

user

This parameter is meant to be used together with the password parameter to perform basic authentication. This parameter specifies the user ID to be used. The user and password parameters are ignored when the basic-authentication parameter is defined.

optional

-

Yes

user-agent

Allows you to set the User-Agent HTTP header (see also RFC2616 section 14.43).

optional

OpenNMS HttpMonitor

Yes

verbose

When set to true, full communication between client and the webserver will be logged (with a log level of DEBUG).

optional

-

No

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<!-- Test HTTP service on port 80 only -->
<service name="HTTP" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="port" value="80"/>
  <parameter key="url" value="/"/>
</service>

<!-- Test for virtual host opennms.com running -->
<service name="OpenNMSdotCom" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="port" value="80"/>
  <parameter key="host-name" value="opennms.com"/>
  <parameter key="url" value="/solutions"/>
  <parameter key="response" value="200-202,299"/>
  <parameter key="response-text" value="~.*[Cc]onsulting.*"/>
</service>

<!-- Test for instance of OpenNMS 1.2.9 running -->
<service name="OpenNMS-129" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="port" value="8080"/>
  <parameter key="url" value="/opennms/event/list"/>
  <parameter key="basic-authentication" value="admin:admin"/>
  <parameter key="response" value="200"/>
</service>

<!-- Test for instance of OpenNMS 1.2.9 with parameter substitution in basic-authentication parameter -->
<service name="OpenNMS-22" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="port" value="8080"/>
  <parameter key="url" value="/opennms/event/list"/>
  <parameter key="basic-authentication" value="{username}:{password}"/>
  <parameter key="response" value="200"/>
</service>
<monitor service="HTTP" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HttpMonitor" />
<monitor service="OpenNMSdotCom" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HttpMonitor" />
<monitor service="OpenNMS-129" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HttpMonitor" />
<monitor service="OpenNMS-22" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HttpMonitor" />
Testing filtering proxies with HttpMonitor

In case a filtering proxy server is set up to allow retrieval of some URLs but deny others, the HttpMonitor can be used to verify this behavior.

As an example a proxy server is running on TCP port 3128, and serves http://www.opennms.org/ but never http://www.myspace.com/. To test this behaviour, the HttpMonitor can be configured as the following:

<service name="HTTP-Allow-opennms.org" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="port" value="3128"/>
  <parameter key="url" value="http://www.opennms.org/"/>
  <parameter key="response" value="200-399"/>
</service>

<service name="HTTP-Block-myspace.com" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="port" value="3128"/>
  <parameter key="url" value="http://www.myspace.com/"/>
  <parameter key="response" value="400-599"/>
</service>

<monitor service="HTTP-Allow-opennms.org" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HttpMonitor"/>
<monitor service="HTTP-Block-myspace.com" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HttpMonitor"/>

4.6.16. HttpPostMonitor

If it is required to HTTP POST any arbitrary content to a remote URI, the HttpPostMonitor can be used. A use case is to HTTP POST to a SOAP endpoint. This monitor implements placeholder substitution in parameter values.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HttpPostMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 28. Monitor specific parameters for the HttpPostMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value Placeholder substitution

payload

The body of the POST, for example properly escaped XML.

required

-

No

auth-password

The password to use for HTTP BASIC auth.

optional

-

Yes

auth-username

The username to use for HTTP BASIC auth.

optional

-

Yes

banner

A string that is matched against the response of the HTTP POST. If the output contains the banner, the service is determined as up. Specify a regex by starting with ~.

optional

-

Yes

charset

Set the character set for the POST.

optional

UTF-8

No

mimetype

Set the mimetype for the POST.

optional

text/xml

No

port

The port for the web server where the POST is send to.

optional

80

No

scheme

The connection scheme to use.

optional

http

No

usesslfilter

Enables or disables the SSL ceritificate validation. true - false

optional

false

No

uri

The uri to use during the POST.

optional

/

Yes

use-system-proxy

Should the system wide proxy settings be used? The system proxy settings can be configured in opennms.conf

optional

false

No

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

The following example would create a POST that contains the payload Word.

<service name="MyServlet" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="banner" value="Hello"/>
  <parameter key="port" value="8080"/>
  <parameter key="uri" value="/MyServlet">
  <parameter key="payload" value="World"/>
  <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="30000"/>
</service>
<monitor service="MyServlet" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HttpPostMonitor"/>

The resulting POST looks like this:

POST /MyServlet HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: text/xml; charset=utf-8
Host: <ip_addr_of_interface>:8080
Connection: Keep-Alive

World

4.6.17. HttpsMonitor

The HTTPS monitor tests the response of an SSL-enabled HTTP server. The HTTPS monitor is an SSL-enabled extension of the HTTP monitor with a default TCP port value of 443. All HttpMonitor parameters apply, so please refer to HttpMonitor’s documentation for more information. This monitor implements placeholder substitution in parameter values.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HttpsMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 29. Monitor specific parameters for the HttpsMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

port

A list of TCP ports to which connection shall be tried.

optional

443

Examples
<!-- Test HTTPS service on port 8443 -->
<service name="HTTPS" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="port" value="8443"/>
  <parameter key="url" value="/"/>
</service>

<monitor service="HTTPS" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.HttpsMonitor" />

4.6.18. IcmpMonitor

The ICMP monitor tests for ICMP service availability by sending echo request ICMP messages. The service is considered available when the node sends back an echo reply ICMP message within the specified amount of time.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.IcmpMonitor

Remote Enabled

true with some restrictions (see below)

Configuration and Usage
Table 30. Monitor specific parameters for the IcmpMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

timeout

Time in milliseconds to wait for a response.

optional

800

allow-fragmentation

Whether to set the "Don’t Fragment" bit on outgoing packets

optional

true

dscp

DSCP traffic-control value.

optional

0

packet-size

Number of bytes of the ICMP packet to send.

optional

64

thresholding-enabled

Enables ICMP thresholding.

optional

true

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<service name="ICMP" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="icmp"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="icmp"/>
</service>
<monitor service="ICMP" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.IcmpMonitor"/>
<!-- Advanced example: set DSCP bits and send a large packet with allow-fragmentation=false -->
<service name="ICMP" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="dscp" value="0x1C"/> <!-- AF32: Class 3, Medium drop probability -->
  <parameter key="allow-fragmentation" value="false"/>
  <parameter key="packet-size" value="2048"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="icmp"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="icmp"/>
</service>
<monitor service="ICMP" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.IcmpMonitor"/>
Note on Remote Poller

The IcmpMonitor needs the JNA ICMP implementation to function on remote poller. Though, corner cases exist where the IcmpMonitor monitor won’t work on remote poller. Examples of such corner cases are: Windows when the remote poller isn’t running has administrator, and Linux on ARM / Rasperry Pi. JNA is the default ICMP implementation used in the remote poller.

4.6.19. ImapMonitor

This monitor checks if an IMAP server is functional. The test is done by initializing a very simple IMAP conversation. The ImapMonitor establishes a TCP connection, sends a logout command and test the IMAP server responses.

The behavior can be simulated with telnet:

telnet mail.myserver.de 143
Trying 62.108.41.197...
Connected to mail.myserver.de.
Escape character is '^]'.
* OK [CAPABILITY IMAP4rev1 LITERAL+ SASL-IR LOGIN-REFERRALS ID ENABLE IDLE STARTTLS LOGINDISABLED] Dovecot ready. (1)
ONMSPOLLER LOGOUT (2)
* BYE Logging out (3)
ONMSPOLLER OK Logout completed.
Connection closed by foreign host.
1 Test IMAP server banner, it has to start * OK to be up
2 Sending a ONMSPOLLER LOGOUT
3 Test server responds with, it has to start with * BYE to be up

If one of the tests in the sample above fails the service is marked down.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.ImapMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 31. Monitor specific parameters for the ImapMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

retry

Number of attempts to get a valid IMAP response

optional

0

port

The port of the IMAP server.

optional

143

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

Some example configuration how to configure the monitor in the poller-configuration.xml

<!-- Test IMAP service on port 143 only -->
<service name="IMAP" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
  <parameter key="port" value="143"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
</service>

<monitor service="IMAP" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.ImapMonitor" />

4.6.20. ImapsMonitor

The IMAPS monitor tests the response of an SSL-enabled IMAP server. The IMAPS monitor is an SSL-enabled extension of the IMAP monitor with a default TCP port value of 993. All ImapMonitor parameters apply, so please refer to ImapMonitor’s documentation for more information.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.ImapsMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 32. Monitor specific parameters for the ImapsMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

port

The destination port where connections shall be attempted.

optional

993

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<!-- IMAPS service at OpenNMS.org is on port 9993 -->
<service name="IMAPS" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="port" value="9993"/>
  <parameter key="version" value="3"/>
  <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="imaps"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="imaps"/>
</service>

<monitor service="IMAPS" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.ImapsMonitor" />

4.6.21. JCifsMonitor

This monitor allows to test a file sharing service based on the CIFS/SMB protocol. This monitor implements placeholder substitution in parameter values.

This monitor is not installed by default. You have to install opennmms-plugin-protocol-cifs from your OpenNMS Horizon installation repository.

With the JCIFS monitor you have different possibilities to test the availability of the JCIFS service:

With the JCifsMonitor it is possible to run tests for the following use cases:

  • share is available in the network

  • a given file exists in the share

  • a given folder exists in the share

  • a given folder should contain at least one (1) file

  • a given folder folder should contain no (0) files

  • by testing on files and folders, you can use a regular expression to ignore specific file and folder names from the test

A network resource in SMB like a file or folder is addressed as a UNC Path.

\\server\share\folder\file.txt

The Java implementation jCIFS, which implements the CIFS/SMB network protocol, uses SMB URLs to access the network resource. The same resource as in our example would look like this as an SMB URL:

smb://workgroup;user:password@server/share/folder/file.txt

The JCifsMonitor can not test:

  • file contains specific content

  • a specific number of files in a folder, for example folder should contain exactly / more or less than x files

  • Age or modification time stamps of files or folders

  • Permissions or other attributes of files or folders

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.JCifsMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 33. Monitor specific parameters for the JCifsMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value Placeholder substitution

retry

Number of retries before the service is marked as down.

optional

0

No

domain

Windows domain where the user is located. You don’t have to use the domain parameter if you use local user accounts.

optional

empty String

Yes

username

Username to access the resource over a network

optional

empty String

Yes

password

Password for the user

optional

empty String

Yes

path

Path to the resource you want to test

required

empty String

No

mode

The test mode which has the following options
path_exist: Service is up if the resource is accessible
path_not_exist: Service is up if the resource is not accessible
folder_empty: Service is up if the folder is empty (0 files)
folder_not_empty: Service is up if the folder has at least one file

optional

path_exist

No

smbHost

Override the IP address of the SMB url to check shares on different file servers.

optional

empty String

No

folderIgnoreFiles

Ignore specific files in folder with regular expression. This parameter will just be applied on folder_empty and folder_not_empty, otherwise it will be ignored.

optional

-

No

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

It makes little sense to have retries higher than 1. It is a waste of resources during the monitoring.
Please consider, if you are accessing shares with Mac OSX you have some side effects with the hidden file '.DS_Store.' It could give you false positives in monitoring, you can use then the folderIgnoreFiles parameter.
Example test existence of a file

This example shows how to configure the JCifsMonitor to test if a file share is available over a network. For this example we have access to a share for error logs and we want to get an outage if we have any error log files in our folder. The share is named log. The service should go back to normal if the error log file is deleted and the folder is empty.

JCifsMonitor configuration to test that a shared folder is empty
<service name="CIFS-ErrorLog" interval="30000" user-defined="true" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="1" />
    <parameter key="timeout" value="3000" />
    <parameter key="domain" value="contoso" />(1)
    <parameter key="username" value="MonitoringUser" />(2)
    <parameter key="password" value="MonitoringPassword" />(3)
    <parameter key="path" value="/fileshare/log/" />(4)
    <parameter key="mode" value="folder_empty" />(5)
</service>

<monitor service="CIFS-ErrorLog" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.JCifsMonitor" />
1 Name of the SMB or Microsoft Windows Domain
2 User for accessing the share
3 Password for accessing the share
4 Path to the folder inside of the share as part of the SMB URL
5 Mode is set to folder_empty

4.6.22. JDBCMonitor

The JDBCMonitor checks that it is able to connect to a database and checks if it is able to get the database catalog from that database management system (DBMS). It is based on the JDBC technology to connect and communicate with the database. This monitor implements placeholder substitution in parameter values.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.JDBCMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 34. Monitor specific parameters for the JDBCMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value Placeholder substitution

driver

JDBC driver class to use

required

org.postgresql.Driver

No

url

JDBC Url to connect to.

required

jdbc:postgresql://:OPENNMS_JDBC_HOSTNAME/opennms

Yes

user

Database user

required

postgres

Yes

password

Database password

required

empty string

Yes

retries

How many retries should be performed before failing the test

optional

0

No

The OPENNMS_JDBC_HOSTNAME is replaced in the url parameter with the IP or resolved hostname of the interface the monitored service is assigned to.

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Provide the database driver

The JDBCMonitor is based on JDBC and requires a JDBC driver to communicate with any database. Due to the fact that OpenNMS Horizon itself uses a PostgreSQL database, the PostgreSQL JDBC driver is available out of the box. For all other database systems a compatible JDBC driver has to be provided to OpenNMS Horizon as a jar-file. To provide a JDBC driver place the driver-jar in the opennms/lib folder of your OpenNMS Horizon. To use the JDBCMonitor from a remote poller, the driver-jar has to be provided to the Remote Poller too. This may be tricky or impossible when using the Java Webstart Remote Poller, because of code signing requirements.

Examples

The following example checks if the PostgreSQL database used by OpenNMS Horizon is available.

<service name="OpenNMS-DBMS" interval="30000" user-defined="true" status="on">
  <parameter key="driver" value="org.postgresql.Driver"/>
  <parameter key="url" value="jdbc:postgresql://OPENNMS_JDBC_HOSTNAME:5432/opennms"/>
  <parameter key="user" value="opennms"/>
  <parameter key="password" value="opennms"/>
</service>

<monitor service="OpenNMS-DBMS" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.JDBCMonitor" />

4.6.23. JDBCStoredProcedureMonitor

The JDBCStoredProcedureMonitor checks the result of a stored procedure in a remote database. The result of the stored procedure has to be a boolean value (representing true or false). The service associated with this monitor is marked as up if the stored procedure returns true and it is marked as down in all other cases. It is based on the JDBC technology to connect and communicate with the database. This monitor implements placeholder substitution in parameter values.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.JDBCStoredProcedureMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 35. Monitor specific parameters for the JDBCStoredProcedureMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value Placeholder substitution

driver

JDBC driver class to use

required

org.postgresql.Driver

No

url

JDBC Url to connect to.

required

jdbc:postgresql://:OPENNMS_JDBC_HOSTNAME/opennms

Yes

user

Database user

required

postgres

Yes

password

Database password

required

empty string

Yes

retries

How many retries should be performed before failing the test

optional

0

No

stored-procedure

Name of the database stored procedure to call

required

-

No

schema

Name of the database schema in which the stored procedure is

optional

test

No

The OPENNMS_JDBC_HOSTNAME is replaced in the url parameter with the IP or resolved hostname of the interface the monitored service is assigned to.

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Provide the database driver

The JDBCStoredProcedureMonitor is based on JDBC and requires a JDBC driver to communicate with any database. Due to the fact that OpenNMS Horizon itself uses a PostgreSQL database, the PostgreSQL JDBC driver is available out of the box. For all other database systems a compatible JDBC driver has to be provided to OpenNMS Horizon as a jar-file. To provide a JDBC driver place the driver-jar in the opennms/lib folder of your OpenNMS Horizon. To use the JDBCStoredProcedureMonitor from a remote poller, the driver-jar has to be provided to the Remote Poller too. This may be tricky or impossible when using the Java Webstart Remote Poller, because of code signing requirements.

Examples

The following example checks a stored procedure added to the PostgreSQL database used by OpenNMS Horizon. The stored procedure returns true as long as less than 250000 events are in the events table of OpenNMS Horizon.

Stored procedure which is used in the monitor
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION eventlimit_sp() RETURNS boolean AS
$BODY$DECLARE
num_events integer;
BEGIN
	SELECT COUNT(*) into num_events from events;
	RETURN num_events > 250000;
END;$BODY$
LANGUAGE plpgsql VOLATILE NOT LEAKPROOF
COST 100;
<service name="OpenNMS-DB-SP-Event-Limit" interval="300000" user-defined="true" status="on">
  <parameter key="driver" value="org.postgresql.Driver"/>
  <parameter key="url" value="jdbc:postgresql://OPENNMS_JDBC_HOSTNAME:5432/opennms"/>
  <parameter key="user" value="opennms"/>
  <parameter key="password" value="opennms"/>
  <parameter key="stored-procedure" value="eventlimit_sp"/>
  <parameter key="schema" value="public"/>
</service>

<monitor service="OpenNMS-DB-SP-Event-Limit" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.JDBCStoredProcedureMonitor"/>

4.6.24. JDBCQueryMonitor

The JDBCQueryMonitor runs an SQL query against a database and is able to verify the result of the query. A read-only connection is used to run the SQL query, so the data in the database is not altered. It is based on the JDBC technology to connect and communicate with the database. This monitor implements placeholder substitution in parameter values.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.JDBCQueryMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 36. Monitor specific parameters for the JDBCQueryMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value Placeholder substitution

driver

JDBC driver class to use

required

org.postgresql.Driver

No

url

JDBC URL to connect to.

required

jdbc:postgresql://:OPENNMS_JDBC_HOSTNAME/opennms

Yes

user

Database user

required

postgres

Yes

password

Database password

required

empty string

Yes

query

The SQL query to run

required

-

No

action

What evaluation action to perform

required

row_count

No

column

The result column to evaluate against

required

-

No

operator

Operator to use for the evaluation

required

>=

No

operand

The operand to compare against the SQL query result

required

depends on the action

No

message

The message to use if the service is down. Both operands and the operator are added to the message too.

optional

generic message depending on the action

No

retries

How many retries should be performed before failing the test

optional

0

No

The OPENNMS_JDBC_HOSTNAME is replaced in the url parameter with the IP or resolved hostname of the interface the monitored service is assigned to.

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Table 37. Available action parameters and their default operand
Parameter Description Default operand

row_count

The number of returned rows is compared, not a value of the resulting rows

1

compare_string

Strings are always checked for equality with the operand

-

compare_int

An integer from a column of the first result row is compared

1

Table 38. Available operand parameters
Parameter XML entity to use in XML configs

=

=

<

&lt;

>

&gt;

!=

!=

&lt;=

>=

&gt;=

Evaluating the action - operator - operand

Only the first result row returned by the SQL query is evaluated. The evaluation can be against the value of one column or the number of rows returned by the SQL query.

Provide the database driver

The JDBCQueryMonitor is based on JDBC and requires a JDBC driver to communicate with any database. Due to the fact that OpenNMS Horizon itself uses a PostgreSQL database, the PostgreSQL JDBC driver is available out of the box. For all other database systems a compatible JDBC driver has to be provided to OpenNMS Horizon as a jar-file. To provide a JDBC driver place the driver-jar in the opennms/lib folder of your OpenNMS Horizon. To use the JDBCQueryMonitor from a remote poller, the driver-jar has to be provided to the Remote Poller too. This may be tricky or impossible when using the Java Webstart Remote Poller, because of code signing requirements.

Examples

The following example checks if the number of events in the OpenNMS Horizon database is fewer than 250000.

<service name="OpenNMS-DB-Event-Limit" interval="30000" user-defined="true" status="on">
  <parameter key="driver" value="org.postgresql.Driver"/>
  <parameter key="url" value="jdbc:postgresql://OPENNMS_JDBC_HOSTNAME:5432/opennms"/>
  <parameter key="user" value="opennms"/>
  <parameter key="password" value="opennms"/>
  <parameter key="query" value="select eventid from events" />
  <parameter key="action" value="row_count" />
  <parameter key="operand" value="250000" />
  <parameter key="operator" value="&lt;" />
  <parameter key="message" value="too many events in OpenNMS database" />
</service>

<monitor service="OpenNMS-DB-Event-Limit" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.JDBCQueryMonitor" />

4.6.25. JmxMonitor

The JMX monitor allows to test service availability of Java applications. The monitor offers the following functionalities:

  • test the application’s connectivity via JMX

  • existence of management beans

  • test the status of a single or multiple management beans and evaluate their value

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.Jsr160Monitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 39. Monitor specific parameters for the JmxMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

retry

Number of attempts to get a response

optional

3

timeout

Time in milliseconds to wait for a response

optional

?

port

Destination port where the JMX requests shall be sent

optional

from jmx-config.xml

factory              

Set this to PASSWORD-CLEAR if credentials are required  

optional

STANDARD

protocol            

Protocol used in the JMX connection string              

optional

rmi

urlPath              

Path used in JMX connection string                      

optional

/jmxrmi

rmiServerPort        

RMI port                                               

optional

45444

remoteJMX            

Use an alternative JMX URL scheme                        

optional

false

beans.<variable>

Defines a mbeans objectname to access. The ´<variable>´ name is arbitrary.

optional

-

tests.<variable>

Tests a mbeans attribute value. The ´<variable>´ name is arbitrary.

optional

-

Examples
Test if a JMX connection can be established
<service name="JMX-Connection-Test" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="3"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
    <parameter key="port" value="18980"/>
</service>
<monitor service="JMX-Connection-Test" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.JmxMonitor"/>
Test a specific management bean for a value
<service name="JMX-BeanValue-Test" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="3"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
    <parameter key="port" value="18980"/>
    <parameter key="beans.connected" value="org.opennms.workflow:name=client.onms.connected"/>
    <parameter key="tests.isConnected" value="connected.get(&quot;Value&quot;) == true"/>
</service>
<monitor service="JMX-BeanValue-Test" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.Jsr160Monitor"/>
Reserved XML characters like >, <, " need to be escaped.

4.6.26. JolokiaBeanMonitor

The JolokiaBeanMonitor is a JMX monitor specialized for the use with the Jolokia framework. If it is required to execute a method via JMX or poll an attribute via JMX, the JolokiaBeanMonitor can be used. It requires a fully installed and configured Jolokia agent to be deployed in the JVM container. If required it allows attribute names, paths, and method parameters to be provided additional arguments to the call. To determine the status of the service the JolokiaBeanMonitor relies on the output to be matched against a banner. If the banner is part of the output the status is interpreted as up. If the banner is not available in the output the status is determined as down. Banner matching supports regular expression and substring match. This monitor implements placeholder substitution in parameter values.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.JolokiaBeanMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 40. Monitor specific parameters for the JolokiaBeanMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value Placeholder substitution

beanname

The bean name to query against.

required

-

No

attrname

The name of the JMX attribute to scrape.

optional (attrname or methodname must be set)

-

No

attrpath

The attribute path.

optional

-

No

auth-username

The username to use for HTTP BASIC auth.

optional

-

Yes

auth-password

The password to use for HTTP BASIC auth.

optional

-

Yes

banner

A string that is match against the output of the system-call. If the output contains the banner, the service is determined as up. Specify a regex by starting with ~.

optional

-

Yes

input1

Method input

optional

-

Yes

input2

Method input

optional

-

Yes

methodname

The name of the bean method to execute, output will be compared to banner.

optional (attrname or methodname must be set)

-

Yes

port

The port of the jolokia agent.

optional

8080

No

url

The jolokia agent url. Defaults to "http://<ipaddr>:<port>/jolokia"

optional

-

Yes

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Table 41. Variables which can be used in the configuration
Variable Description

${ipaddr}

IP-address of the interface the service is bound to.

${port}

Port the service it bound to.

Examples

Some example configuration how to configure the monitor in the poller-configuration.xml

<parameter key="url" value="http://${ipaddr}:${port}/jolokia"/>
<parameter key="url" value="https://${ipaddr}:${port}/jolokia"/>
AttrName vs MethodName

The JolokiaBeanMonitor has two modes of operation. It can either scrape an attribute from a bean, or execute a method and compare output to a banner. The method execute is useful when your application has it’s own test methods that you would like to trigger via OpenNMS Horizon.

The args to execute a test method called "superTest" that take in a string as input would look like this:

<parameter key="beanname" value="MyBean" />
<parameter key="methodname" value="superTest" />
<parameter key="input1" value="someString"/>

The args to scrape an attribute from the same bean would look like this:

<parameter key="beanname" value="MyBean" />
<parameter key="attrname" value="upTime" />

4.6.27. LdapMonitor

The LDAP monitor tests for LDAP service availability. The LDAP monitor first tries to establish a TCP connection on the specified port. Then, if it succeeds, it will attempt to establish an LDAP connection and do a simple search. If the search returns a result within the specified timeout and attempts, the service will be considered available. The scope of the LDAP search is limited to the immediate subordinates of the base object. The LDAP search is anonymous by default. The LDAP monitor makes use of the com.novell.ldap.LDAPConnection class. This monitor implements placeholder substitution in parameter values.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.LdapMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 42. Monitor specific parameters for the LdapMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value Placeholder substitution

dn

The distinguished name to use if authenticated search is needed.

optional

-

Yes

password

The password to use if authenticated search is needed.

optional

-

Yes

port

The destination port where connection shall be attempted.

optional

389

No

retry

Number of attempts to get a search result.

optional

1

No

searchbase

The base distinguished name to search from.

optional

base

No

searchfilter

The LDAP search’s filter.

optional

(objectclass=*)

No

version

The version of the LDAP protocol to use, specified as an integer. Note: Only LDAPv3 is supported at the moment.

optional

3

No

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<!-- OpenNMS.org -->
<service name="LDAP" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="port" value="389"/>
  <parameter key="version" value="3"/>
  <parameter key="searchbase" value="dc=opennms,dc=org"/>
  <parameter key="searchfilter" value="uid=ulf"/>
  <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="ldap"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="ldap"/>
</service>
<monitor service="LDAP" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.LdapMonitor"/>

4.6.28. LdapsMonitor

The LDAPS monitor tests the response of an SSL-enabled LDAP server. The LDAPS monitor is an SSL-enabled extension of the LDAP monitor with a default TCP port value of 636. All LdapMonitor parameters apply, so please refer to LdapMonitor’s documentation for more information. This monitor implements the same placeholder substitution in parameter values as LdapMonitor.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.LdapsMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 43. Monitor specific parameters for the LdapsMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

port

The destination port where connections shall be attempted.

optional

636

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<!-- LDAPS service at OpenNMS.org is on port 6636 -->
<service name="LDAPS" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="port" value="6636"/>
  <parameter key="version" value="3"/>
  <parameter key="searchbase" value="dc=opennms,dc=org"/>
  <parameter key="searchfilter" value="uid=ulf"/>
  <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="ldaps"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="ldaps"/>
</service>

<monitor service="LDAPS" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.LdapsMonitor" />

4.6.29. MemcachedMonitor

This monitor allows to monitor Memcached, a distributed memory object caching system. To monitor the service availability the monitor tests if the Memcached statistics can be requested. The statistics are processed and stored in RRD files. The following metrics are collected:

Table 44. Collected metrics using the MemcachedMonitor
Metric Description

uptime

Seconds the Memcached server has been running since last restart.

rusageuser

User time seconds for the server process.

rusagesystem

System time seconds for the server process.

curritems

Number of items in this servers cache.

totalitems

Number of items stored on this server.

bytes

Number of bytes currently used for caching items.

limitmaxbytes

Maximum configured cache size.

currconnections

Number of open connections to this Memcached.

totalconnections

Number of successful connect attempts to this server since start.

connectionstructure

Number of internal connection handles currently held by the server.

cmdget

Number of GET commands received since server startup.

cmdset

Number of SET commands received since server startup.

gethits

Number of successful GET commands (cache hits) since startup.

getmisses

Number of failed GET requests, because nothing was cached.

evictions

Number of objects removed from the cache to free up memory.

bytesread

Number of bytes received from the network.

byteswritten

Number of bytes send to the network.

threads

Number of threads used by this server.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.MemcachedMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 45. Monitor specific parameters for the MemcachedMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

retry

Number of attempts to establish the Memcached connnection.

optional

0

port

TCP port connecting to Memcached.

optional

11211

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

The following example shows a configuration in the poller-configuration.xml.

<service name="Memcached" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="port" value="11211" />
  <parameter key="retry" value="2" />
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000" />
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response" />
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="memcached" />
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="memcached" />
</service>

<monitor service="Memcached" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.MemcachedMonitor" />

4.6.30. NetScalerGroupHealthMonitor

This monitor is designed for Citrix® NetScaler® loadbalancing checks. It checks if more than x percent of the servers assigned to a specific group on a loadbalanced service are active. The required data is gathered via SNMP from the NetScaler®. The status of the servers is determined by the NetScaler®. The provided service it self is not part of the check. The basis of this monitor is the SnmpMonitorStrategy. A valid SNMP configuration in OpenNMS Horizon for the NetScaler® is required.

A NetScaler® can manage several groups of servers per application. This monitor just covers one group at a time. If there are multiple groups to check, define one monitor per group.
This monitor is not checking the loadbalanced service it self.
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.NetScalerGroupHealthMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 46. Monitor specific parameters for the NetScalerGroupHealthMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

group-name

The name of the server group to check

required

-

group-health

The percentage of active servers vs total server of the group as an integer

optional

60

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

The following example checks a server group called central_webfront_http. If at least 70% of the servers are active, the service is up. If less then 70% of the servers are active the service is down. A configuration like the following can be used for the example in the poller-configuration.xml.

<service name="NetScaler_Health" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
   <parameter key="group-name" value="central_webfront_http" />
   <parameter key="group-health" value="70" />
</service>

<monitor service="NetScaler_Health" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.NetScalerGroupHealthMonitor” />
Details about the used SNMP checks

The monitor checks the status of the server group based on the NS-ROOT-MIB using the svcGrpMemberState. svcGrpMemberState is part of the serviceGroupMemberTable. The serviceGroupMemberTable is indexed by svcGrpMemberGroupName and svcGrpMemberName. A initial lookup for the group-name is performed. Based on the lookup the serviceGroupMemberTable is walked with the numeric representation of the server group. The monitor interprets just the server status code 7-up as active server. Other status codes like 2-unknown or 3-busy are counted for total amount of servers.

4.6.31. NrpeMonitor

This monitor allows to test plugins and checks running on the Nagios Remote Plugin Executor (NRPE) framework. The monitor allows to test the status output of any available check command executed by NRPE. Between OpenNMS Horizon and Nagios are some conceptional differences. In OpenNMS Horizon a service can only be available or not available and the response time for the service is measured. Nagios on the other hand combines service availability, performance data collection and thresholding in one check command. For this reason a Nagios check command can have more states then OK and CRITICAL. Using the NrpeMonitor marks all check command results other than OK as down. The full output of the check command output message is passed into the service down event in OpenNMS Horizon.

NRPE configuration on the server is required and the check command has to be configured, e.g. command[check_apt]=/usr/lib/nagios/plugins/check_apt
OpenNMS Horizon executes every NRPE check in a Java thread without fork() a process and it is more resource friendly. Nevertheless it is possible to run NRPE plugins which combine a lot of external programs like sed, awk or cut. Be aware, each command end up in forking additional processes.
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.NrpeMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 47. Monitor specific parameters for the NrpeMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

retry

Number of retries before the service is marked as down.

optional

0

command

The {check_name} of the command configured as `command[{check_name}]="/path/to/plugin/check-script"

required

empty

port

Port to access NRPE on the remote server.

optional

5666

padding

Padding for sending the command to the NRPE agent.

optional

2

usessl

Enable encryption of network communication. NRPE uses SSL with anonymous DH and the following cipher suite TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA

optional

true

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Example: Using check_apt with NRPE

This examples shows how to configure the NrpeMonitor running the check_apt command on a configured NRPE.

Configuration of the NRPE check command on the agent in 'nrpe.cfg'
command[check_apt]=/usr/lib/nagios/plugins/check_apt
Configuration to test the NRPE plugin with the NrpeMonitor
<service name="NRPE-Check-APT" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="3" />
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000" />
  <parameter key="port" value="5666" />
  <parameter key="command" value="check_apt" />
  <parameter key="padding" value="2" />
</service>

<monitor service="NRPE-Check-APT" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.NrpeMonitor" />

4.6.32. NtpMonitor

The NTP monitor tests for NTP service availability. During the poll an NTP request query packet is generated. If a response is received, it is parsed and validated. If the response is a valid NTP response, the service is considered available.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.NtpMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 48. Monitor specific parameters for the NtpMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

port

The destination port where the NTP request shall be sent.

optional

123

retry

Number of attempts to get a response.

optional

0

timeout

Time in milliseconds to wait for a response.

optional

5000

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<!-- Fast NTP server -->
<service name="NTP" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="1000"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="ntp"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="ntp"/>
</service>
<monitor service="NTP" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.NtpMonitor"/>

4.6.33. OmsaStorageMonitor

With OmsaStorageMonitor you are able to monitor your Dell OpenManaged servers RAID array status. The following OIDs from the STORAGEMANAGEMENT-MIB are supported by this monitor:

virtualDiskRollUpStatus                     .1.3.6.1.4.1.674.10893.1.20.140.1.1.19
arrayDiskLogicalConnectionVirtualDiskNumber .1.3.6.1.4.1.674.10893.1.20.140.3.1.5
arrayDiskNexusID                            .1.3.6.1.4.1.674.10893.1.20.130.4.1.26
arrayDiskLogicalConnectionArrayDiskNumber   .1.3.6.1.4.1.674.10893.1.20.140.3.1.3
arrayDiskState                              .1.3.6.1.4.1.674.10893.1.20.130.4.1.4

To test the status of the disk array the virtualDiskRollUpStatus is used. If the result of the virtualDiskRollUpStatus is not 3 the monitors is marked as down.

Table 49. Possible result of virtual disk rollup status
Result State description Monitor state in OpenNMS Horizon

1

other

DOWN

2

unknown

DOWN

3

ok

UP

4

non-critical

DOWN

5

critical

DOWN

6

non-recoverable

DOWN

You’ll need to know the maximum number of possible logical disks you have in your environment. For example: If you have 3 RAID arrays, you need for each logical disk array a service poller.

To give more detailed information in case of an disk array error, the monitor tries to identify the problem using the other OIDs. This values are used to enrich the error reason in the service down event. The disk array state is resolved to a human readable value by the following status table.

Table 50. Possible array disk state errors
Value Status

1

Ready

2

Failed

3

Online

4

Offline

6

Degraded

7

Recovering

11

Removed

15

Resynching

24

Rebuilding

25

noMedia

26

Formating

28

Running Diagnostics

35

Initializing

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.OmsaStorageMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 51. Monitor specific parameters for the OmsaStorageMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

virtualDiskNumber

The disk index of your RAID array

optional

1

port

The TCP port OpenManage is listening

optional

from snmp-config.xml

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

Some example configuration how to configure the monitor in the poller-configuration.xml. The RAID array monitor for your first array is configured with virtualDiskNumber = 1 and can look like this:

<service name="OMSA-Disk-Array-1" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
 <parameter key="retry" value="3"/>
 <parameter key="timeout" value="6000"/>
 <parameter key="virtualDiskNumber" value="1"/>
</service>

<monitor service="OMSA-Disk-Array-1" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.OmsaStorageMonitor"/>

If there is more than one RAID array to monitor you need an additional configuration. In this case virtualDiskNumber = 2.

<service name="OMSA-Disk-Array-2" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
 <parameter key="retry" value="3"/>
 <parameter key="timeout" value="6000"/>
 <parameter key="virtualDiskNumber" value="2"/>
</service>

<monitor service="OMSA-Disk-Array-2" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.OmsaStorageMonitor"/>

4.6.34. OpenManageChassisMonitor

The OpenManageChassis monitor tests the status of a Dell chassis by querying its SNMP agent. The monitor polls the value of the node’s SNMP OID .1.3.6.1.4.1.674.10892.1.300.10.1.4.1 (MIB-Dell-10892::chassisStatus). If the value is OK (3), the service is considered available.

As this monitor uses SNMP, the queried nodes must have proper SNMP configuration in snmp-config.xml.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.OpenManageChassisMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 52. Monitor specific parameters for the OpenManageChassisMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

port

The port to which connection shall be tried.

optional

from snmp-config.xml

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<!-- Overriding default SNMP config -->
<service name="OMA-Chassis" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="3"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="5000"/>
</service>

<monitor service="OMA-Chassis" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.OpenManageChassisMonitor" />
Dell MIBs

Dell MIBs can be found here. Download the DCMIB<version>.zip or DCMIB<version>.exe file corresponding to the version of your OpenManage agents. The latest one should be good enough for all previous version though.

4.6.35. PageSequenceMonitor

The PageSequenceMonitor (PSM) allows OpenNMS to monitor web applications. This monitor has several configuration options regarding IPv4, IPv6 and how to deal with name resolution. To add flexibility, the node label and IP address can be passed as variable into the monitor. This allows running the monitor with node dependent configuration. Beyond testing a web application with a single URL it can also test a path through a web application. A test path through an web application can look like this:

  1. login to a certain web application

  2. Execute an action while being logged in

  3. Log off

The service is considered as up if all this is working ok. If there’s an error somewhere, your application will need attention and the service changes the state to down.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.PageSequenceMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage

The configuration for this monitor consists of several parts. First is the overall configuration for retries and timeouts. These parameters are global for the whole path through the web application.

03 page sequence monitor config
Figure 30. Configuration overview of the PSM

The overall layout of the monitor configuration is more complex. Additionally, it is possible to configure a page sequence containing a path through a web application.

Table 53. Monitor parameters for the PageSequenceMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

retry

The number of retries per page.

optional

0

strict-timeout

Defines a timer to wait before a retry attempt is made. It is only used if at least one (1) retry is configured. If retry >= 1 and strict-timeout is true the next attempt is delayed and the Poller Daemon waits NOW - InitialAttempt ms + Timeout ms. With strict-timout = false the next attempt is started right after a failure.

optional

false

page-sequence

Definition of the page-sequence to execute, see table with Page Sequence Parameter

required

-

sequence-retry

The retry parameter for the entire page sequence.

optional

0

use-system-proxy

Should the system wide proxy settings be used? The system proxy settings can be configured in opennms.conf

optional

false

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Table 54. Page Sequence Parameter
Parameter Description Required Default

name

The name of the page-sequence. (Is this relevant/used?)

optional

-

method

HTTP method for example GET or POST

-

-

http-version

HTTP protocol version number, 0.9, 1.0 or 1.1

optional

HTTP/1.1

user-agent

Set the user agent field in HTTP header to identify the OpenNMS monitor

optional

OpenNMS PageSequenceMonitor (Service name: "${SERVICE NAME}")

virtual-host

Set the virtual host field in HTTP header. In case of an HTTPS request, this is also the virtual domain to send as part of the TLS negotiation, known as server name indication (SNI) (See: RFC3546 section 3.1)

-

-

path

The relative URL to call in the request.

required

-

scheme

Define the URL scheme as http or https

optional

http

user-info

Set user info field in the HTTP header

-

-

host

Set host field in HTTP header

optional

IP interface address of the service

requireIPv6

Communication requires a connection to an IPv6 address. (true or false)

-

-

requireIPv4

Communication requires a connection to an IPv4 address. (true or false)

-

-

disable-ssl-verification

Enable or disable SSL certificate verification for HTTPS tests. Please use this option carefully, for self-signed certificates import the CA certificate in the JVM and don’t just disable it.

optional

false

port

Port of the web server connecting to

optional

80

query

??

-

-

failureMatch

Text to look for in the response body. This is a Regular Expression matched against every line, and it will be considered a failure at the first match and sets the service with this monitor Down.

-

-

failureMessage

The failure message is used to construct the reason code. ${n} values may be used to pull information from matching groups in the failureMatch regular expression.

-

-

successMatch

Text to look for in the response body. This is a Regular Expression matched against every line, and it will be considered a success at the first match and sets the service with this monitor Up.

optional

-

locationMatch

The relative URL which must be loaded for the request to be considered successful.

optional

-

response-range

Range for allowed HTTP error codes from the response.

-

-

session-variable

Assign the value of a regex match group to a session variable with a user-defined name. The match group is identified by number and must be zero or greater.

-

-

response-range

A comma-separated list of acceptable HTTP response code ranges (200-202,299).

optional

100-399

If you set requireIPv4 and requireIPv6 false, the host IP for connection will be resolved from system name resolver and the associated IP address from the IP interface is ignored.
Table 55. Variables which can be passed in the configuration
Variable Description

${nodelabel}

Nodelabel of the node the monitor is associated to.

Session variables

It is possible to assign strings from a retrieved page to variables that can be used in page parameters later in the same sequence. First, specify one or more capturing groups in the successMatch expression (see Java Class Pattern for more information on regular expressions in Java). The captured values can then be assigned to variable names by using the session-variable parameter, and used in a later page load.

Per-page response times

It is possible to collect response times for individual pages in a sequence. To use this functionality, a ds-name attribute must be added to each page whose load time should be tracked. The response time for each page will be stored in the same RRD file specified for the service via the rrd-base-name parameter under the specified datasource name.

You will need to delete existing RRD files and let them be recreated with the new list of datasources when you add a ds-name attribute to a page in a sequence that is already storing response time data.
Examples

The following example shows how to monitor the OpenNMS web application using several mechanisms. It first does an HTTP GET of ${ipaddr}/opennms (following redirects as a browser would) and then checks to ensure that the resulting page has the phrase Password on it. Next, a login is attempted using HTTP POST to the relative URL for submitting form data (usually, the URL which the form action points to). The parameters (j_username and j_password) indicate the form’s data and values to be submitted. After getting the resulting page, first the expression specified in the page’s failureMatch attribute is verified, which when found anywhere on the page indicates that the page has failed. If the failureMatch expression is not found in the resulting page, then the expression specified in the page’s successMatch attribute is checked to ensure it matches the resulting page. If the successMatch expression is not found on the page, then the page fails. If the monitor was able to successfully login, then the next page is processed. In the example, the monitor navigates to the Event page, to ensure that the text Event Queries is found on the page. Finally, the monitor calls the URL of the logout page to close the session. By using the locationMatch parameter, it is verified that the logout was successful and a redirect was triggered.

Each page is checked to ensure its HTTP response code fits into the response-range, before the failureMatch, successMatch, and locationMatch expressions are evaluated.
Configuration to test the login to the OpenNMS Web application
<service name="OpenNMS-Web-Login" interval="30000" user-defined="true" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="5000"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="opennmslogin"/>
  <parameter key="page-sequence">
    <page-sequence>
      <page path="/opennms/login.jsp"
            port="8980"
            successMatch="Password" />
      <page path="/opennms/j_spring_security_check"
            port="8980"
            method="POST">
        <parameter key="j_username" value="admin"/>
        <parameter key="j_password" value="admin"/>
      </page>
      <page path="/opennms/index.jsp"
            port="8980"
            successMatch="Log Out" />
      <page path="/opennms/event/index"
            port="8980" successMatch="Event Queries" />
      <page path="/opennms/j_spring_security_logout"
            port="8980"
            method="POST"
            response-range="300-399"
            locationMatch="/opennms" />
    </page-sequence>
  </parameter>
</service>

<monitor service="OpenNMS-Web-Login" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.PageSequenceMonitor"/>
Test with mixing HTTP and HTTPS in a page sequence
<service name="OpenNMS-Web-Login" interval="30000" user-defined="true" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="5000"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="opennmslogin"/>
  <parameter key="page-sequence">
    <page-sequence>
      <page scheme="http"
            host="ecomm.example.com"
            port="80"
            path="/ecomm/jsp/Login.jsp"
            virtual-host="ecomm.example.com"
            successMatch="eComm Login"
            timeout="10000"
            http-version="1.1"/>
      <page scheme="https"
            method="POST"
            host="ecomm.example.com" port="443"
            path="/ecomm/controller"
            virtual-host="ecomm.example.com"
            successMatch="requesttab_select.gif"
            failureMessage="Login failed: ${1}"
            timeout="10000"
            http-version="1.1">
        <parameter key="action_name" value="XbtnLogin"/>
        <parameter key="session_timeout" value=""/>
        <parameter key="userid" value="EXAMPLE"/>
        <parameter key="password" value="econ"/>
      </page>
      <page scheme="http"
            host="ecomm.example.com" port="80"
            path="/econsult/controller"
            virtual-host="ecomm.example.com"
            successMatch="You have successfully logged out of eComm"
            timeout="10000" http-version="1.1">
        <parameter key="action_name" value="XbtnLogout"/>
      </page>
    </page-sequence>
  </parameter>
</service>

<monitor service="OpenNMS-Web-Login" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.PageSequenceMonitor"/>
Test login with dynamic credentials using session variables
<service name="OpenNMS-Web-Login" interval="30000" user-defined="true" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="5000"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="opennmslogin"/>
  <parameter key="page-sequence">
    <page-sequence name="opennms-login-seq-dynamic-credentials">
      <page path="/opennms"
            port="80"
            virtual-host="demo.opennms.org"
            successMatch="(?s)User:.*<strong>(.*?)</strong>.*?Password:.*?<strong>(.*?)</strong>">
        <session-variable name="username" match-group="1" />
        <session-variable name="password" match-group="2" />
      </page>
      <page path="/opennms/j_acegi_security_check"
            port="80"
            virtual-host="demo.opennms.org"
            method="POST"
            failureMatch="(?s)Your log-in attempt failed.*Reason: ([^<]*)"
            failureMessage="Login Failed: ${1}"
            successMatch="Log out">"
        <parameter key="j_username" value="${username}" />
        <parameter key="j_password" value="${password}" />
      </page>
      <page path="/opennms/event/index.jsp"
            port="80"
            virtual-host="demo.opennms.org"
            successMatch="Event Queries" />
      <page path="/opennms/j_acegi_logout"
            port="80"
            virtual-host="demo.opennms.org"
            successMatch="logged off" />
    </page-sequence>
  </parameter>
</service>

<monitor service="OpenNMS-Web-Login" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.PageSequenceMonitor"/>
Log in to demo.opennms.org without knowing username and password
<service name="OpenNMS-Demo-Login" interval="300000" user-defined="true" status="on">
  <parameter key="page-sequence">
    <page-sequence>
      <page path="/opennms"
            port="80"
            virtual-host="demo.opennms.org"
            successMatch="(?s)User:.*<strong>(.*?)</strong>.*?Password:.*?<strong>(.*?)</strong>">
        <session-variable name="username" match-group="1" />
        <session-variable name="password" match-group="2" />
      </page>
      <page path="/opennms/j_acegi_security_check"
            port="80"
            virtual-host="demo.opennms.org"
            method="POST"
            successMatch="Log out">"
        <parameter key="j_username" value="${username}" />
        <parameter key="j_password" value="${password}" />
      </page>
      <page path="/opennms/j_acegi_logout"
            port="80"
            virtual-host="demo.opennms.org"
            successMatch="logged off" />
    </page-sequence>
  </parameter>
</service>

<monitor service="OpenNMS-Demo-Login" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.PageSequenceMonitor"/>
Example with per-page response times
<service name="OpenNMS-Login" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="opennmslogin"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="overall"/>
  <parameter key="page-sequence">
    <page-sequence>
      <page path="/opennms/acegilogin.jsp"
            port="8980"
            ds-name="login-page"/>
      <page path="/opennms/event/index.jsp"
            port="8980"
            ds-name="event-page"/>
    </page-sequence>
  </parameter>
</service>

<monitor service="OpenNMS-Login" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.PageSequenceMonitor"/>

4.6.36. PercMonitor

This monitor tests the status of a PERC RAID array.

The monitor first polls the RAID-Adapter-MIB::logicaldriveTable (1.3.6.1.4.1.3582.1.1.2) to retrieve the status of the RAID array you want to monitor. If the value of the status object of the corresponding logicaldriveEntry is not 2, the array is degraded and the monitor further polls the RAID-Adapter-MIB::physicaldriveTable (1.3.6.1.4.1.3582.1.1.3) to detect the failed drive(s).

This monitor requires the outdated persnmpd software to be installed on the polled nodes. Please prefer using OmsaStorageMonitor monitor where possible.
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.PercMonitor

Remote Enabled

false (relies on SNMP configuration)

Configuration and Usage
Table 56. Monitor specific parameters for the PercMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

array

The RAID array you want to monitor.

optional

0.0

port

The UDP port to connect to

optional

from snmp-config.xml

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<!-- Monitor 1st RAID arrays using configuration from snmp-config.xml -->
<service name="PERC" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on" />

<monitor service="PERC" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.PercMonitor" />

4.6.37. Pop3Monitor

The POP3 monitor tests for POP3 service availability on a node. The monitor first tries to establish a TCP connection on the specified port. If a connection is established, a service banner should have been received. The monitor makes sure the service banner is a valid POP3 banner (ie: starts with +OK). If the banner is valid, the monitor sends a QUIT POP3 command and makes sure the service answers with a valid response (ie: a response that starts with +OK). The service is considered available if the service’s answer to the QUIT command is valid.

The behaviour can be simulated with telnet:

$ telnet mail.opennms.org 110
Trying 192.168.0.100
Connected to mail.opennms.org.
Escape character is '^]'.
+OK <21860.1076718099@mail.opennms.org>
quit
+OK
Connection closed by foreign host.
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.Pop3Monitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 57. Monitor specific parameters for the Pop3Monitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

port

TCP port to connect to.

optional

110

retry

Number of attempts to find the service available.

optional

0

strict-timeout

If set to true, makes sure that at least timeout milliseconds are elapsed between attempts.

optional

false

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<service name="POP3" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="pop3"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="pop3"/>
</service>
<monitor service="POP3" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.Pop3Monitor"/>

4.6.38. PrTableMonitor

The PrTableMonitor monitor tests the prTable of a Net-SNMP agent.

prTable definition

A table containing information on running programs/daemons configured for monitoring in the snmpd.conf file of the agent. Processes violating the number of running processes required by the agent’s configuration file are flagged with numerical and textual errors.

— UCD-SNMP-MIB

The monitor looks up the prErrorFlag entries of this table. If the value of a prErrorFlag entry in this table is set to "1" the service is considered unavailable.

prErrorFlag definition

An Error flag to indicate trouble with a process. It goes to 1 if there is an error, 0 if no error.

— UCD-SNMP-MIB
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.PrTableMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 58. Monitor specific parameters for the PrTableMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

port

The port to which connection shall be tried.

optional

from snmp-config.xml

retries

Deprecated. Same as retry. Parameter retry takes precedence if both are set.

optional

from snmp-config.xml

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<!-- Overriding default SNMP config -->
<service name="Process-Table" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="3"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="5000"/>
</service>

<monitor service="Process-Table" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.PrTableMonitor" />
UCD-SNMP-MIB

The UCD-SNMP-MIB may be found here.

4.6.39. RadiusAuthMonitor

This monitor allows to test the functionality of the RADIUS authentication system. The availability is tested by sending an AUTH packet to the RADIUS server. If a valid ACCEPT response is received, the RADIUS service is up and considered as available. This monitor implements placeholder substitution in parameter values.

To use this monitor it is required to install the RADIUS protocol for OpenNMS Horizon.
{apt-get,yum} install {opennms-package-base-name}-plugin-protocol-radius

The test is similar to test the behavior of a RADIUS server by evaluating the result with the command line tool radtest.

root@vagrant:~# radtest "John Doe" hello 127.0.0.1 1812 radiuspassword
Sending Access-Request of id 49 to 127.0.0.1 port 1812
	User-Name = "John Doe"
	User-Password = "hello"
	NAS-IP-Address = 127.0.0.1
	NAS-Port = 1812
	Message-Authenticator = 0x00000000000000000000000000000000
rad_recv: Access-Accept packet from host 127.0.0.1 port 1812, id=49, length=37 (1)
	Reply-Message = "Hello, John Doe"
1 The Access-Accept message which is evaluated by the monitor.
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.protocols.radius.monitor.RadiusAuthMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 59. Monitor specific parameters for the RadiusAuthMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value Placeholder substitution

timeout

Time in milliseconds to wait for the RADIUS service.

optional

5000

No

retry

This is a placeholder for the second optional monitor parameter description.

optional

0

No

authport

RADIUS authentication port.

optional

1812

No

acctport

RADIUS accounting port.

optional

1813

No

user

Username to test the authentication

optional

OpenNMS

Yes

password

Password to test the authentication

optional

OpenNMS

Yes

secret

The RADIUS shared secret used for communication between the client/NAS and the RADIUS server.

optional

secret

Yes

authtype

RADIUS authentication type. The following authentication types are supported: chap, pap, mschapv1, mschapv2, eapmd5, eapmschapv2, eapttls

optional

pap

No

nasid

The Network Access Server identifier originating the Access-Request.

optional

opennms

Yes

inner-protocol

When using EAP-TTLS authentication, this property indicates the tunnelled authentication type. Only pap is currently supported.

optional

pap

No

inner-user

Username for the tunnelled pap authentication when using EAP-TTLS.

optional

Inner-OpenNMS

Yes

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

Example configuration how to configure the monitor in the poller-configuration.xml.

<service name="Radius-Authentication" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="3" />
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000" />
  <parameter key="user" value="John Doe" />
  <parameter key="password" value="hello" />
  <parameter key="secret" value="radiuspassword" />
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/response" />
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="radiusauth" />
</service>

<monitor service="Radius-Authentication" class-name="org.opennms.protocols.radius.monitor.RadiusAuthMonitor" />

4.6.40. SmbMonitor

This monitor is used to test the NetBIOS over TCP/IP name resolution in Microsoft Windows environments. The monitor tries to retrieve a NetBIOS name for the IP address of the interface. Name services for NetBIOS in Microsoft Windows are provided on port 137/UDP or 137/TCP.

The service uses the IP address of the interface, where the monitor is assigned to. The service is up if for the given IP address a NetBIOS name is registered and can be resolved.

For troubleshooting see the usage of the Microsoft Windows command line tool nbtstat or on Linux nmblookup.

Microsoft deprecated the usage of NetBIOS. Since Windows Server 2000 DNS is used as the default name resolution.
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SmbMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 60. Monitor specific parameters for the SmbMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

do-node-status

Try to get the NetBIOS node status type for the given address

optional

true

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

Some example configuration how to configure the monitor in the poller-configuration.xml.

<service name="SMB" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
</service>

<monitor service="SMB" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SmbMonitor"/>

4.6.41. SnmpMonitor

The SNMP monitor gives a generic possibility to monitor states and results from SNMP agents. This monitor has two basic operation modes:

  • Test the response value of one specific OID (scalar object identifier);

  • Test multiple values in a whole table.

To decide which mode should be used, the walk and match-all parameters are used.

See the Operating mode selection'' and Monitor specific parameters for the SnmpMonitor'' tables below for more information about these operation modes.

Table 61. Operating mode selection
walk match-all Operating mode

true

true

tabular, all values must match

false

tabular, any value must match

count

specifies that the value of at least minimum and at most maximum objects encountered in

false

true

scalar

false

scalar

count

tabular, between minimum and maximum values must match

This monitor can’t be used on the OpenNMS Horizon Remote Poller. It is currently not possible for the Remote Poller to have access to the SNMP configuration of a central OpenNMS Horizon.
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SnmpMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

When the monitor is configured to persist the response time, it will count the total amount of time spent until a successful response is obtained, including the retries. It won’t store the time spent during the last successful attempt.

Configuration and Usage
Table 62. Monitor specific parameters for the SnmpMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

hex

Specifies that the value monitored should be compared against its hexadecimal representation. Useful when the monitored value is a string containing non-printable characters.

optional

false

match-all

Can be set to:
count: specifies that the value of at least minimum and at most maximum objects encountered in the walk must match the criteria specified by operand and operator.
true and walk is set to true: specifies that the value of every object encountered in the walk must match the criteria specified by the operand and operator parameters.
false and walk is set to true: specifies that the value of any object encountered in the walk must match the criteria specified by the operand and operator parameters.

optional

true

maximum

Valid only when match-all is set to count, otherwise ignored. Should be used in conjunction with the minimum parameter. Specifies that the value of at most maximum objects encountered in the walk must meet the criteria specified by the operand and operator parameters.

optional

0

minimum

Valid only when match-all is set to count, otherwise ignored. Should be used in conjunction with the maximum parameter. Specifies that the value of at least minimum objects encountered in the walk must meet the criteria specified by the operand and operator parameters.

optional

0

oid

The object identifier of the MIB object to monitor. If no other parameters are present, the monitor asserts that the agent’s response for this object must include a valid value (as opposed to an error, no-such-name, or end-of-view condition) that is non-null.

optional

.1.3.6.1.2.1.1.2.0 (SNMPv2-MIB::SysObjectID)

operand

The value to be compared against the observed value of the monitored object. Note: Comparison will always succeed if either the operand or operator parameter isn’t set and the monitored value is non-null.

optional

-

operator

The operator to be used for comparing the monitored object against the operand parameter. Must be one of the following symbolic operators:
&lt; (<): Less than. Both operand and observed object value must be numeric.
&gt; (>): Greater than. Both operand and observed object value must be numeric.
&lt;= (⇐): Less than or equal to. Both operand and observed object value must be numeric.
&gt;= (>=): Greater than or equal to. Both operand and observed object value must be numeric.
=: Equal to. Applied in numeric context if both operand and observed object value are numeric, otherwise in string context as a case-sensitive exact match.
!=: Not equal to. Applied in numeric context if both operand and observed object value are numeric, otherwise in string context as a case-sensitive exact match.
~: Regular expression match. Always applied in string context.
Note: Comparison will always succeed if either the operand or operator parameter isn’t set and the monitored value is non-null. Keep in mind that you need to escape all < and > characters as XML entities (&lt; and &gt; respectively)

optional

-

port

Destination port where the SNMP requests shall be sent.

optional

from snmp-config.xml

reason-template

A user-provided template used for the monitor’s reason code if the service is unvailable. Defaults to a reasonable value if unset. See below for an explanation of the possible template parameters.

optional

depends on operation mode

retries

Deprecated Same as retry. Parameter retry takes precedence if both are set.

optional

from snmp-config.xml

walk

false: Sets the monitor to poll for a scalar object unless if the match-all parameter is set to count, in which case the match-all parameter takes precedence.
true: Sets the monitor to poll for a tabular object where the match-all parameter defines how the tabular object’s values must match the criteria defined by the operator and operand parameters. See also the match-all, minimum, and maximum parameters.

optional

false

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Table 63. Variables which can be used in the reason-template parameter
Variable Description

${hex}

Value of the hex parameter.

${ipaddr}

IP address polled.

${matchAll}

Value of the match-all parameter.

${matchCount}

When match-all is set to count, contains the number of matching instances encountered.

${maximum}

Value of the maximum parameter.

${minimum}

Value of the minimum paramater.

${observedValue}

Polled value that made the monitor succeed or fail.

${oid}

Value of the oid parameter.

${operand}

Value of the operand parameter.

${operator}

Value of the operator parameter.

${port}

Value of the port parameter.

${retry}

Value of the retry parameter.

${timeout}

Value of the timeout parameter.

${walk}

Value of the walk parameter.

Example for monitoring scalar object

As a working example we want to monitor the thermal system fan status which is provided as a scalar object ID.

cpqHeThermalSystemFanStatus .1.3.6.1.4.1.232.6.2.6.4.0

The manufacturer MIB gives the following information:

Description of the cpqHeThermalSystemFanStatus from CPQHLTH-MIB
SYNTAX 	INTEGER  {
    other    (1),
    ok       (2),
    degraded (3),
    failed   (4)
}
ACCESS 	read-only
DESCRIPTION
"The status of the fan(s) in the system.

This value will be one of the following:
other(1)
Fan status detection is not supported by this system or driver.

ok(2)
All fans are operating properly.

degraded(3)
A non-required fan is not operating properly.

failed(4)
A required fan is not operating properly.

If the cpqHeThermalDegradedAction is set to shutdown(3) the
system will be shutdown if the failed(4) condition occurs."

The SnmpMonitor is configured to test if the fan status returns ok(2). If so, the service is marked as up. Any other value indicates a problem with the thermal fan status and marks the service down.

Example SnmpMonitor as HP InsightManager fan monitor in poller-configuration.xml
<service name="HP-Insight-Fan-System" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="oid" value=".1.3.6.1.4.1.232.6.2.6.4.0"/>(1)
    <parameter key="operator" value="="/>(2)
    <parameter key="operand" value="2"/>(3)
    <parameter key="reason-template" value="System fan status is not ok. The state should be ok(${operand}) the observed value is ${observedValue}. Please check your HP Insight Manager. Syntax: other(1), ok(2), degraded(3), failed(4)"/>(4)
</service>

<monitor service="HP-Insight-Fan-System" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SnmpMonitor" />
1 Scalar object ID to test
2 Operator for testing the response value
3 Integer 2 as operand for the test
4 Encode MIB status in the reason code to give more detailed information if the service goes down
Example test SNMP table with all matching values

The second mode shows how to monitor values of a whole SNMP table. As a practical use case the status of a set of physical drives is monitored. This example configuration shows the status monitoring from the CPQIDA-MIB.

We use as a scalar object id the physical drive status given by the following tabular OID:

cpqDaPhyDrvStatus .1.3.6.1.4.1.232.3.2.5.1.1.6
Description of the cpqDaPhyDrvStatus object id from CPQIDA-MIB
SYNTAX 	INTEGER  {
    other             (1),
    ok                (2),
    failed            (3),
    predictiveFailure (4)
}
ACCESS 	read-only
DESCRIPTION
Physical Drive Status.
This shows the status of the physical drive.
The following values are valid for the physical drive status:

other (1)
 Indicates that the instrument agent does not recognize
 the drive.  You may need to upgrade your instrument agent
 and/or driver software.

ok (2)
 Indicates the drive is functioning properly.

failed (3)
 Indicates that the drive is no longer operating and
 should be replaced.

predictiveFailure(4)
 Indicates that the drive has a predictive failure error and
 should be replaced.

The configuration in our monitor will test all physical drives for status ok(2).

Example SnmpMonitor as HP Insight physical drive monitor in poller-configuration.xml
<service name="HP-Insight-Drive-Physical" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="oid" value=".1.3.6.1.4.1.232.3.2.5.1.1.6"/>(1)
    <parameter key="walk" value="true"/>(2)
    <parameter key="operator" value="="/>(3)
    <parameter key="operand" value="2"/>(4)
    <parameter key="match-all" value="true"/>(5)
    <parameter key="reason-template" value="One or more physical drives are not ok. The state should be ok(${operand}) the observed value is ${observedValue}. Please check your HP Insight Manager. Syntax: other(1), ok(2), failed(3), predictiveFailure(4), erasing(5), eraseDone(6), eraseQueued(7)"/>(6)
</service>

<monitor service="HP-Insight-Drive-Physical" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SnmpMonitor" />
1 OID for SNMP table with all physical drive states
2 Enable walk mode to test every entry in the table against the test criteria
3 Test operator for integer
4 Integer 2 as operand for the test
5 Test in walk mode has to be passed for every entry in the table
6 Encode MIB status in the reason code to give more detailed information if the service goes down
Example test SNMP table with all matching values

This example shows how to use the SnmpMonitor to test if the number of static routes are within a given boundary. The service is marked as up if at least 3 and at maxium 10 static routes are set on a network device. This status can be monitored by polling the table ipRouteProto from the RFC1213-MIB2.

ipRouteProto 1.3.6.1.2.1.4.21.1.9

The MIB description gives us the following information:

SYNTAX 	INTEGER  {
    other(1),
    local(2),
    netmgmt(3),
    icmp(4),
    egp(5),
    ggp(6),
    hello(7),
    rip(8),
    is-is(9),
    es-is(10),
    ciscoIgrp(11),
    bbnSpfIgp(12),
    ospf(13),
    bgp(14)}
}
ACCESS 	read-only
DESCRIPTION
"The routing mechanism via which this route was learned.
Inclusion of values for gateway routing protocols is not
intended to imply that hosts should support those protocols."

To monitor only local routes, the test should be applied only on entries in the ipRouteProto table with value 2. The number of entries in the whole ipRouteProto table has to be counted and the boundaries on the number has to be applied.

Example SnmpMonitor used to test if the number of local static route entries are between 3 or 10.
<service name="All-Static-Routes" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
 <parameter key="oid" value=".1.3.6.1.2.1.4.21.1.9" />(1)
 <parameter key="walk" value="true" />(2)
 <parameter key="operator" value="=" />(3)
 <parameter key="operand" value="2" />(4)
 <parameter key="match-all" value="count" />(5)
 <parameter key="minimum" value="3" />(6)
 <parameter key="maximum" value="10" />(7)
</service>

<monitor service="All-Static-Routes" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SnmpMonitor" />
1 OID for SNMP table ipRouteProto
2 Enable walk mode to test every entry in the table against the test criteria
3 Test operator for integer
4 Integer 2 as operand for testing local route entries
5 Test in walk mode has is set to count to get the number of entries in the table regarding operator and operand
6 Lower count boundary set to 3
7 High count boundary is set to 10

4.6.42. SshMonitor

The SshMonitor tests the availability of a SSH service. During the poll an attempt is made to connect on the specified port. If the connection request is successful, then the service is considered up. Optionaly, the banner line generated by the service may be parsed and compared against a pattern before the service is considered up.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SshMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 64. Monitor specific parameters for the SshMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

banner

Regular expression to be matched against the service’s banner.

optional

-

client-banner

The client banner that OpenNMS Horizon will use to identify itself on the service.

optional

SSH-1.99-OpenNMS_1.5

match

Regular expression to be matched against the service’s banner.
Deprecated, please use the banner parameter instead.
Note that this parameter takes precedence over the banner parameter, though.

optional

-

port

TCP port to which SSH connection shall be tried.

optional

22

retry

Number of attempts to establish the SSH connnection.

optional

0

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
<service name="SSH" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="1"/>
  <parameter key="banner" value="SSH"/>
  <parameter key="client-banner" value="OpenNMS poller"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="5000"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="ssh"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="ssh"/>
</service>
<monitor service="SSH" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SshMonitor"/>

4.6.43. SSLCertMonitor

This monitor is used to test if a SSL certificate presented by a remote network server are valid. A certificate is invalid if its initial time is prior to the current time, or if the current time is prior to 7 days (configurable) before the expiration time. The monitor only supports SSL on the socket and does not support a higher level protocol above it.

You can simulate the behavior by running a command like this:

echo | openssl s_client -connect <site>:<port> 2>/dev/null | openssl x509 -noout -dates

The output shows you the time range a certificate is valid:

notBefore=Dec 24 14:11:34 2013 GMT
notAfter=Dec 25 10:37:40 2014 GMT

You can configure a threshold in days applied on the notAfter date.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SSLCertMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 65. Monitor specific parameters for the SSLCertMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

port

TCP port for the service with SSL certificate.

required

-1

retry

Number of attempts to get the certificate state

optional

0

days

Number of days before the certificate expires that we mark the service as failed.

optional

7

server-name

This is the DNS hostname to send as part of the TLS negotiation, known as server name indication (SNI) (See: RFC3546 section 3.1)

optional

-

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Table 66. Variables which can be passed in the configuration for server-name
Variable Description

${ipaddr}

The node’s IP-Address

${nodeid}

The node ID

${nodelabel}

Label of the node the monitor is associated to.

${svcname}

The service name

The monitor has no support for communicating on other protocol layers above the SSL session layer. It is not able to send a Host header for HTTPS, or issue a STARTTLS command for IMAP, POP3, SMTP, FTP, XMPP, LDAP, or NNTP.
Examples

The following example shows how to monitor SSL certificates on services like IMAPS, SMTPS and HTTPS. If the certificates expire within 30 days the service goes down and indicates this issue in the reason of the monitor. In this example the monitoring interval is reduced to test the certificate every 2 hours (7,200,000 ms). Configuration in poller-configuration.xml is as the following:

<service name="SSL-Cert-IMAPS-993" interval="7200000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="2000"/>
    <parameter key="port" value="993"/>
    <parameter key="days" value="30"/>
</service>
<service name="SSL-Cert-SMTPS-465" interval="7200000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="2000"/>
    <parameter key="port" value="465"/>
    <parameter key="days" value="30"/>
</service>
<service name="SSL-Cert-HTTPS-443" interval="7200000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
    <parameter key="port" value="443"/>
    <parameter key="days" value="30"/>
    <parameter key="server-name" value="${nodelabel}.example.com"/>
</service>

<monitor service="SSL-Cert-IMAPS-993" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SSLCertMonitor" />
<monitor service="SSL-Cert-SMTPS-465" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SSLCertMonitor" />
<monitor service="SSL-Cert-HTTPS-443" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SSLCertMonitor" />

4.6.44. StrafePingMonitor

This monitor is used to monitor packet delay variation to a specific endpoint using ICMP. The main use case is to monitor a WAN end point and visualize packet loss and ICMP packet round trip time deviation. The StrafePingMonitor performs multiple ICMP echo requests (ping) and stores the response-time of each as well as the packet loss, in a RRD file. Credit is due to Tobias Oetiker, as this graphing feature is an adaptation of the SmokePing tool that he developed.

01 strafeping
Figure 31. Visualization of a graph from the StrafePingMonitor
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.StrafePingMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage

Monitor specific parameters for the StrafePingMonitor

Parameter Description Required Default value

timeout

Time in milliseconds to wait before assuming that a packet has not responded

optional

800

retry

The number of retries to attempt when a packet fails to respond in the given timeout

optional

2

ping-count

The number of pings to attempt each interval

required

20

failure-ping-count

The number of pings that need to fail for the service to be considered down

required

20

allow-fragmentation

Whether to set the "Don’t Fragment" bit on outgoing packets

optional

true

dscp

DSCP traffic-control value.

optional

0

packet-size

Number of bytes of the ICMP packet to send.

optional

64

wait-interval

Time in milliseconds to wait between each ICMP echo-request packet

required

50

rrd-repository

The location to write RRD data. Generally, you will not want to change this from default

required

$OPENNMS_HOME/share/rrd/response

rrd-base-name

The name of the RRD file to write (minus the extension, .rrd or .jrb)

required

strafeping

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

The StrafePingMonitor is typically used on WAN connections and not activated for every ICMP enabled device in your network. Further this monitor is much I/O heavier than just a simple RRD graph with a single ICMP response time measurement. By default you can find a separate poller package in the 'poller-configuration.xml' called strafer. Configure the include-range or a filter to enable monitoring for devices with the service StrafePing.

Don’t forget to assign the service StrafePing on the IP interface to be activated.

The following example enables the monitoring for the service StrafePing on IP interfaces in the range 10.0.0.1 until 10.0.0.20. Additionally the Nodes have to be in a surveillance category named Latency.

<package name="strafer" >
   <filter>categoryName == 'Latency'</filter>
   <include-range begin="10.0.0.1" end="10.0.0.20"/>
   <rrd step="300">
     <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016</rra>
     <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:1488</rra>
     <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:366</rra>
     <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:366</rra>
     <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:366</rra>
   </rrd>
   <service name="StrafePing" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
     <parameter key="retry" value="0"/>
     <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
     <parameter key="ping-count" value="20"/>
     <parameter key="failure-ping-count" value="20"/>
     <parameter key="wait-interval" value="50"/>
     <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response"/>
     <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="strafeping"/>
   </service>
   <downtime interval="30000" begin="0" end="300000"/>
   <downtime interval="300000" begin="300000" end="43200000"/>
   <downtime interval="600000" begin="43200000" end="432000000"/>
   <downtime begin="432000000" delete="true"/>
 </package>
 <monitor service="StrafePing" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.StrafePingMonitor"/>

4.6.45. TcpMonitor

This monitor is used to test IP Layer 4 connectivity using TCP. The monitor establishes an TCP connection to a specific port. To test the availability of the service, the greetings banner of the application is evaluated. The behavior is similar to a simple test using the telnet command as shown in the example.

Simulating behavior of the monitor with telnet
root@vagrant:~# telnet 127.0.0.1 22
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to 127.0.0.1.
Escape character is '^]'.
SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_6.6.1p1 Ubuntu-2ubuntu2 (1)
1 Service greeting banner
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.TcpMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 67. Monitor specific parameters for the TcpMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

port

TCP port of the application.

required

-1

retry

Number of retries before the service is marked as down.

optional

0

banner

Evaluation of the service connection banner with regular expression. By default any banner result is valid.

optional

*

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

This example shows to test if the ICA service is available on TCP port 1494. The test evaluates the connection banner starting with ICA.

<service name="TCP-Citrix-ICA" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="0" />
  <parameter key="banner" value="ICA" />
  <parameter key="port" value="1494" />
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000" />
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/response" />
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="tcpCitrixIca" />
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="tcpCitrixIca" />
</service>

<monitor service="TCP-Citrix-ICA" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.TcpMonitor" />

4.6.46. SystemExecuteMonitor

If it is required to execute a system call or run a script to determine a service status, the SystemExecuteMonitor can be used. It is calling a script or system command, if required it provides additional arguments to the call. To determine the status of the service the SystemExecuteMonitor can rely on 0 or a non-0 exit code of system call. As an alternative, the output of the system call can be matched against a banner. If the banner is part of the output the status is interpreted as up. If the banner is not available in the output the status is determined as down.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.SystemExecuteMonitor

Remote Enabled

true

Configuration and Usage
Table 68. Monitor specific parameters for the SystemExecuteMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

script

The system-call to execute.

required

-

args

The arguments to hand over to the system-call. It supports variable replacement, see below.

optional

-

banner

A string that is match against the output of the system-call. If the output contains the banner, the service is determined as UP.

optional

-

The parameter args supports variable replacement for the following set of variables.

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Table 69. Variables which can be used in the configuration
Variable Description

${timeout}

Timeout in milliseconds, based on config of the service.

${timeoutsec}

Timeout in seconds, based on config of the service.

${retry}

Amount of retries based on config of the service.

${svcname}

Service name based on the config of the service.

${ipaddr}

IP-address of the interface the service is bound to.

${nodeid}

Nodeid of the node the monitor is associated to.

${nodelabel}

Nodelabel of the node the monitor is associated to.

Examples
<parameter key="args" value="-i ${ipaddr} -t ${timeout}"/>
<parameter key="args" value="http://${nodelabel}/${svcname}/static"/>
SystemExecuteMonitor vs GpMonitor

The SystemExecuteMonitor is the successor of the GpMonitor. The main differences are:

  • Variable replacement for the parameter args

  • There are no fixed arguments handed to the system-call

  • The SystemExecuteMonitor supports RemotePoller deployment

To migrate services from the GpMonitor to the SystemExecuteMonitor it is required to alter the parameter args. To match the arguments called hoption for the hostAddress and toption for the timeoutInSeconds. The args string that matches the GpMonitor call looks like this:

<parameter key="args" value="--hostname ${ipaddr} --timeout ${timeoutsec}" />

To migrate the GpMonitor parameters hoption and toption just replace the --hostname and --timeout directly in the args key.

4.6.47. VmwareCimMonitor

This monitor is part of the VMware integration provided in Provisiond. The monitor is specialized to test the health status provided from all Host System (host) sensor data.

This monitor is only executed if the host is in power state on.
This monitor requires to import hosts with Provisiond and the VMware import. OpenNMS Horizon requires network access to VMware vCenter and the hosts. To get the sensor data the credentials from vmware-config.xml for the responsible vCenter is used. The following asset fields are filled from Provisiond and is provided by VMware import feature: VMware Management Server, VMware Managed Entity Type and the foreignId which contains an internal VMware vCenter Identifier.

The global health status is evaluated by testing all available host sensors and evaluating the state of each sensor. A sensor state could be represented as the following:

  • Unknown(0)

  • OK(5)

  • Degraded/Warning(10)

  • Minor failure(15)

  • Major failure(20)

  • Critical failure(25)

  • Non-recoverable error(30)

The service is up if all sensors have the status OK(5). If any sensor gives another status then OK(5) the service is marked as down. The monitor error reason contains a list of all sensors which not returned status OK(5).

In case of using Distributed Power Management the standBy state forces a service down. The health status is gathrered with a direct connection to the host and in stand by this connection is unavailable and the service is down. To deal with stand by states, the configuration ignoreStandBy can be used. In case of a stand by state, the service is considered as up.

state can be changed see the ignoreStandBy configuration parameter.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.VmwareCimMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 70. Monitor specific parameters for the VmwareCimMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

retry

Number of retries before the service is marked as down.

optional

0

ignoreStandBy

Treat power state standBy as up.

optional

false

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

Some example configuration how to configure the monitor in the poller-configuration.xml.

<service name="VMwareCim-HostSystem" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
</service>

<monitor service="VMwareCim-HostSystem" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.VmwareCimMonitor"/>

4.6.48. VmwareMonitor

This monitor is part of the VMware integration provided in Provisiond and test the power state of a virtual machine (VM) or a host system (host). If the power state of a VM or host is poweredOn the service is up. The state off the service on the VM or Host is marked as down. By default standBy is also considered as down. In case of using Distributed Power Management the standBy state can be changed see the ignoreStandBy configuration parameter.

The information for the status of a virtual machine is collected from the responsible VMware vCenter using the credentials from the vmware-config.xml. It is also required to get specific asset fields assigned to an imported virtual machine and host system. The following asset fields are required, which are populated by the VMware integration in Provisiond: VMware Management Server, VMware Managed Entity Type and the foreignId which contains an internal VMware vCenter Identifier.
Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.VmwareMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 71. Monitor specific parameters for the VmwareMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

retry

Number of retries before the service is marked as down.

optional

0

ignoreStandBy

Treat power state standBy as up.

optional

false

reportAlarms

Checks for unacknowledged vSphere alarms for a given comma-separated list of severities (red, yellow, green, gray).

optional

``

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

Some example configuration how to configure the monitor in the poller-configuration.xml. With this configuration the monitor will go down if any unacknowledged vSphere alarms with severity red or yellow exist for this managed entity.

<service name="VMware-ManagedEntity" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="reportAlarms" value="red, yellow"/>
</service>

<monitor service="VMware-ManagedEntity" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.VmwareMonitor"/>

4.6.49. WebMonitor

TODO: add proper description

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.WebMonitor

Configuration and Usage
Table 72. Configuration parameters
Parameter Description Required Default value

use-system-proxy

Should the system wide proxy settings be used? The system proxy settings can be configured in opennms.conf

optional

false

4.6.50. Win32ServiceMonitor

The Win32ServiceMonitor enables OpenNMS Horizon to monitor the running state of any Windows service. The service status is monitored using the Microsoft Windows® provided SNMP agent providing the LAN Manager MIB-II. For this reason it is required the SNMP agent and OpenNMS Horizon is correctly configured to allow queries against part of the MIB tree. The status of the service is monitored by polling the

svSvcOperatingState = 1.3.6.1.4.1.77.1.2.3.1.3

of a given service by the display name.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.Win32ServiceMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 73. Monitor specific parameters for the Win32ServiceMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

service-name

The name of the service, this should be the exact name of the Windows service to monitor as it appears in the Services MSC snap-in. Short names such as you might use with net start will not work here.

required

Server

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Non-English Windows The service-name is sometime encoded in languages other than English. Like in French, the Task Scheduler service is Planificateur de tâche. Because of the "â" (non-English character), the OID value is encoded in hexa (0x50 6C 61 6E 69 66 69 63 61 74 65 75 72 20 64 65 20 74 C3 A2 63 68 65 73).
Troubleshooting

If you’ve created a Win32ServiceMonitor poller and are having difficulties with it not being monitored properly on your hosts, chances are there is a difference in the name of the service you’ve created, and the actual name in the registry.

For example, I need to monitor a process called Example Service on one of our production servers. I retrieve the Display name from looking at the service in service manager, and create an entry in the poller-configuration.xml files using the exact name in the Display name field.

However, what I don’t see is the errant space at the end of the service display name that is revealed when doing the following:

snmpwalk -v 2c -c <communitystring> <hostname> .1.3.6.1.4.1.77.1.2.3.1.1

This provides the critical piece of information I am missing:

iso.3.6.1.4.1.77.1.2.3.1.1.31.83.116.97.102.102.119.97.114.101.32.83.84.65.70.70.86.73.69.87.32.66.97.99.107.103.114.111.117.110.100.32 = STRING: "Example Service "
Note the extra space before the close quote.

The extra space at the end of the name was difficult to notice in the service manager GUI, but is easily visible in the snmpwalk output. The right way to fix this would be to correct the service Display name field on the server, however, the intent of this procedure is to recommend verifying the true name using snmpwalk as opposed to relying on the service manager GUI.

Examples

Monitoring the service running state of the Task Scheduler on an English local Microsoft Windows® Server requires at minimum the following entry in the poller-configuration.xml.

<service name="Windows-Task-Scheduler" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="service-name" value="Task Scheduler"/>
</service>

<monitor service="Windows-Task-Scheduler" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.Win32ServiceMonitor"/>

4.6.51. WsManMonitor

This monitor can be used to issue a WS-Man Get command and validate the results using a SPEL expression. This monitor implements placeholder substitution in parameter values.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.WsManMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage
Table 74. Monitor specific parameters for the WsManMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value Placeholder substitution

resource-uri

Resource URI

required

-

No

rule

SPEL expression applied against the result of the Get

required

-

Yes

selector.

Used to filter the result set. All selectors must prefixed with selector.

optional

(None)

No

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples

The following monitor will issue a Get against the configured resource and verify that the correct service tag is returned:

<service name="WsMan-ServiceTag-Check" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="resource-uri" value="http://schemas.dell.com/wbem/wscim/1/cim-schema/2/root/dcim/DCIM_ComputerSystem"/>
  <parameter key="selector.CreationClassName" value="DCIM_ComputerSystem"/>
  <parameter key="selector.Name" value="srv:system"/>
  <parameter key="rule" value="#IdentifyingDescriptions matches '.*ServiceTag' and #OtherIdentifyingInfo matches 'C7BBBP1'"/>
</service>

<monitor service="WsMan-ServiceTag-Check" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.WsManMonitor/>

4.6.52. XmpMonitor

The XMP monitor tests for XMP service/agent availability by establishing an XMP session and querying the target agent’s sysObjectID variable contained in the Core MIB. The service is considered available when the session attempt succeeds and the agent returns its sysObjectID without error.

Monitor facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.XmpMonitor

Remote Enabled

false

Configuration and Usage

These parameters can be set in the XMP service entry in collectd-configuration.xml and will override settings from xmp-config.xml. Also, don’t forget to add an entry in response-graph.properties so that response values will be graphed.

Table 75. Monitor specific parameters for the XmpMonitor
Parameter Description Required Default value

timeout

Time in milliseconds to wait for a successful session.

optional

5000

authenUser

The authenUser parameter for use with the XMP session.

optional

xmpUser

port

TCP port to connect to for XMP session establishment

optional

5270

mib

Name of MIB to query

optional

core

object

Name of MIB object to query

optional

sysObjectID

This monitor implements the Common Configuration Parameters.

Examples
Adding entry in collectd-configuration.xml
<service name="XMP" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
  <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-repository" value="/opt/opennms/share/rrd/response"/>
  <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="xmp"/>
  <parameter key="ds-name" value="xmp"/>
</service>
<monitor service="XMP" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.poller.monitors.XmpMonitor"/>
Add entry in response-graph.properties
reports=icmp, \
xmp, \ . . . .

report.xmp.name=XMP
report.xmp.columns=xmp
report.xmp.type=responseTime
report.xmp.command=--title="XMP Response Time" \
 --vertical-label="Seconds" \
 DEF:rtMills={rrd1}:xmp:AVERAGE \
 DEF:minRtMills={rrd1}:xmp:MIN \
 DEF:maxRtMills={rrd1}:xmp:MAX \
 CDEF:rt=rtMills,1000,/ \
 CDEF:minRt=minRtMills,1000,/ \
 CDEF:maxRt=maxRtMills,1000,/ \
 LINE1:rt#0000ff:"Response Time" \
 GPRINT:rt:AVERAGE:" Avg  \\: %8.2lf %s" \
 GPRINT:rt:MIN:"Min  \\: %8.2lf %s" \
 GPRINT:rt:MAX:"Max  \\: %8.2lf %s\\n"

5. Performance Management

In OpenNMS Horizon collection of performance data is done by the Collectd daemon. Management Agents and protocols to access performance data is implemented in Collectors. These Collectors are scheduled and run in parallel in a global defined Thread Pool in Collectd.

This section describes how to configure Collectd for performance data collection with all available Collectors coming with OpenNMS Horizon.

5.1. Collectd Configuration

Table 76. Configuration and log files related to Collectd
File Description

$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/collectd-configuration.xml

Configuration file for global Collectd daemon and Collectors configuration

$OPENNMS_HOME/logs/collectd.log

Log file for all Collectors and the global Collectd daemon

$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/snmp-graph.properties

RRD graph definitions to render performance data measurements in the Web UI

$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/snmp-graph.properties.d

Directory with RRD graph definitions for devices and applications to render performance data measurements in the Web UI

$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/events/opennms.events.xml

Event definitions for Collectd, i.e. dataCollectionSucceeded, and dataCollectionFailed

$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/resource-types.d

Directory to store generic resource type definitions.

To change the behavior for performance data collection, the collectd-configuration.xml file can be modified. The configuration file is structured in the following parts:

  • Global daemon config: Define the size of the used Thread Pool to run Collectors in parallel.

  • Collection packages: Packages to allow the grouping of configuration parameters for Collectors.

  • Collection service association: Based on the name of the collection service, the implementation for application or network management protocols are assigned.

01 collectd overview
Figure 32. Collectd overview for associated files and configuration

The global behavior, especially the size of the Thread Pool for Collectd, is configured in the collectd-configuration.xml.

Global configuration parameters for Collectd
<collectd-configuration
        threads="50"> (1)
1 Size of the Thread Pool to run Collectors in parallel

5.1.1. Resource Types

Resource Types

Resource Types are used to group sets of performance data measurements for persisting, indexing, and display in the Web UI. Each resource type has a unique name, label definitions for display in the Web UI, and strategy definitions for archiving the measurements for long term analysis.

There are two labels for a resource type. The first, label, defines a string to display in the Web UI. The second, resourceLabel, defines the template used when displaying each unique group of measurements name for the resource type.

There are two types of strategy definitions for resource types, persistence selector and storage strategies. The persistence selector strategy filters the group indexes down to a subset for storage on disk. The storage strategy is used to convert an index into a resource path label for persistence. There are two special resource types that do not have a resource-type definition. They are node and ifIndex.

Resource Types can be defined inside files in either $OPENNMS_HOME/etc/resource-types.d or $OPENNMS_HOME/etc/datacollection, with the latter being specific for SNMP.

Here is the diskIOIndex resource type definition from $OPENNMS_HOME/etc/datacollection/netsnmp.xml:

<resourceType name="diskIOIndex" label="Disk IO (UCD-SNMP MIB)" resourceLabel="${diskIODevice} (index ${index})">
  <persistenceSelectorStrategy class="org.opennms.netmgt.collection.support.PersistRegexSelectorStrategy">
    <parameter key="match-expression" value="not(#diskIODevice matches '^(loop|ram).*')" />
  </persistenceSelectorStrategy>
  <storageStrategy class="org.opennms.netmgt.dao.support.SiblingColumnStorageStrategy">
    <parameter key="sibling-column-name" value="diskIODevice" />
    <parameter key="replace-all" value="s/^-//" />
    <parameter key="replace-all" value="s/\s//" />
    <parameter key="replace-all" value="s/:\\.*//" />
  </storageStrategy>
</resourceType>
Persistence Selector Strategies
Table 77. Persistence Selector Strategies
Class Description

org.opennms.netmgt.collection.support.PersistAllSelectorStrategy

Persist All indexes

org.opennms.netmgt.collection.support.PersistRegexSelectorStrategy

Persist indexes based on JEXL evaluation

PersistRegexSelectorStrategy

The PersistRegexSelectorStrategy class takes a single parameter, match-expression, which defines a JEXL expressions. On evaulation, this expression should return either true, persist index to storage, or false, discard data.

Storage Strategies
Table 78. Storage Strategies
Class Storage Path Value

org.opennms.netmgt.collection.support.IndexStorageStrategy

Index

org.opennms.netmgt.collection.support.JexlIndexStorageStrategy

Value after JexlExpression evaluation

org.opennms.netmgt.collection.support.ObjectNameStorageStrategy

Value after JexlExpression evaluation

org.opennms.netmgt.dao.support.FrameRelayStorageStrategy

interface label + '.' + dlci

org.opennms.netmgt.dao.support.HostFileSystemStorageStrategy

Uses the value from the hrStorageDescr column in the hrStorageTable, cleaned up for unix filesystems.

org.opennms.netmgt.dao.support.SiblingColumnStorageStrategy

Uses the value from an SNMP lookup of OID in sibling-column-name parameter, cleaned up for unix filesystems.

org.opennms.protocols.xml.collector.XmlStorageStrategy

Index, but cleaned up for unix filesystems.

IndexStorageStrategy

The IndexStorageStrategy takes no parameters.

JexlIndexStorageStrategy

The JexlIndexStorageStrategy takes two parameters, index-format which is required, and clean-output which is optional.

Parameter Description

index-format

The JexlExpression to evaluate

clean-output

Boolean to indicate whether the index value is cleaned up.

If the index value will be cleaned up, then it will have all whitespace, colons, forward and back slashes, and vertical bars replaced with underscores. All equal signs are removed.

This class can be extended to create custom storage strategies by overriding the updateContext method to set additional key/value pairs to use in your index-format template.

public class ExampleStorageStrategy extends JexlIndexStorageStrategy {

    private static final Logger LOG = LoggerFactory.getLogger(ExampleStorageStrategy.class);
    public ExampleStorageStrategy() {
        super();
    }

    @Override
    public void updateContext(JexlContext context, CollectionResource resource) {
        context.set("Example", resource.getInstance());
    }
}
ObjectNameStorageStrategy

The ObjectNameStorageStrategy extends the JexlIndexStorageStrategy, so its requirements are the same. Extra key/values pairs are added to the JexlContext which can then be used in the index-format template. The original index string is converted to an ObjectName and can be referenced as ${ObjectName}. The domain from the ObjectName can be referenced as ${domain}. All key properties from the ObjectName can also be referenced by ${key}.

This storage strategy is meant to be used with JMX MBean datacollections where multiple MBeans can return the same set of attributes. As of OpenNMS Horizon 20, this is only supported using a HTTP to JMX proxy and using the XmlCollector as the JmxCollector does not yet support indexed groups.

Given an MBean like java.lang:type=MemoryPool,name=Survivor Space, and a storage strategy like this:

<storageStrategy class="org.opennms.netmgt.collection.support.ObjectNameStorageStragegy">
  <parameter key="index-format" value="${domain}_${type}_${name}" />
  <parameter key="clean-output" value="true" />
</storageStrategy>

Then the index value would be java_lang_MemoryPool_Survivor_Space.

FrameRelayStorageStrategy

The FrameRelayStorageStrategy takes no parameters.

HostFileSystemStorageStrategy

The HostFileSystemStorageStrategy takes no parameters. This class is marked as deprecated, and can be replaced with:

<storageStrategy class="org.opennms.netmgt.dao.support.SiblingColumnStorageStrategy">
  <parameter key="sibling-column-name" value="hrStorageDescr" />
  <parameter key="replace-first" value="s/^-$/_root_fs/" />
  <parameter key="replace-all" value="s/^-//" />
  <parameter key="replace-all" value="s/\\s//" />
  <parameter key="replace-all" value="s/:\\\\.*//" />
</storageStrategy>
SiblingColumnStorageStrategy
Parameter Description

sibling-column-name

Alternate string value to use for index

replace-first

Regex Pattern, replaces only the first match

replace-all

Regex Pattern, replaces all matches

Values for replace-first, and replace-all must match the pattern s/regex/replacement/ or an error will be thrown.

XmlStorageStrategy

This XmlStorageStrategy takes no parameters. The index value will have all whitespace, colons, forward and back slashes, and vertical bars replaced with underscores. All equal signs are removed.

5.2. Collection Packages

To define more complex collection configuration it is possible to group Service configurations which provide performance metrics into Collection Packages. They allow to assign to Nodes different Service Configurations to differentiate collection of performance metrics and connection settings. To assign a Collection Package to nodes the Rules/Filters syntax can be used.

Multiple packages can be configured, and an interface can exist in more than one package. This gives great flexibility how the service levels will be determined for a given device. The order how Collection Packages are defined is important when IP Interfaces match multiple Collection Packages with the same Service configuration. The last Collection Package on the service will be applied. This can be used to define a less specific catch all filter for a default configuration. A more specific Collection Package can be used to overwrite the default setting.

Collection Package Attributes
<package name="package1">(1)
  <filter>IPADDR != '0.0.0.0'</filter>(2)
  <include-range begin="1.1.1.1" end="254.254.254.254"/>(3)
  <include-range begin="::1" end="ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff"/>(4)
1 Unique name of the collection package.
2 Apply this package to all IP interfaces with a configured IPv4 address (not equal 0.0.0.0)
3 Evaluate IPv4 rule to collect for all IPv4 interfaces in the given range
4 Evaluate IPv6 rule to collect for all IPv6 interfaces in the given range

5.2.1. Service Configurations

Service Configurations define what Collector to use and which performance metrics needs to be collected. Service Configurations contains common Service Attributes as well as Collector specific parameters.

Service Configuration Attributes
<service name="SNMP"(1)
         interval="300000"(2)
         user-defined="false"(3)
         status="on">(4)
  <parameter key="collection" value="default"/>(5)
  <parameter key="thresholding-enabled" value="true"/>(6)
</service>

<collector service="SNMP" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.SnmpCollector"/>(7)
1 Service Configuration name which is mapped to a specific Collector implementation.
2 The interval at which the service is to be collected. (in milliseconds).
3 Marker to say if service is user defined, used specifically for UI purposes.
4 Service is collected only if on.
5 Assign performance data collection metric groups named default.
6 Enable threshold evaluation for metrics provided by this service.
7 Run the SnmpCollector implementation for the service named SNMP
02 collectd configuration xml
Figure 33. Configuration overview for data collection with Collectd

5.3. Collectors

5.3.1. JmxCollector

The JmxCollector is used to collect performance data via JMX. Attributes are extracted from the available MBeans.

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.Jsr160Collector

Package

core

Supported on Minion

Yes

Collector Parameters
Table 79. Collector specific parameters for the Jsr160Collector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the JMX Collection to use

required

(none)

thresholding-enabled

Whether collected performance data shall be tested against thresholds

optional

true

retry

Number of retries

optional

3

friendlyName

Name of the path in which the metrics should be stored

optional

Value of the port, or 'jsr160' if no port is set.

factory

The password strategy to use. Supported values are: STANDARD (for authentication), PASSWORD_CLEAR (same as STANDARD) and SASL (if secure connection is required)

optional

STANDARD

url

The connection url, e.g. service:jmx:rmi:localhost:18980. The ip address can be substituted. Use ${ipaddr} in that case, e.g.: service:jmx:rmi:${ipaddr}:18980

optional

(none)

username

The username if authentication is required.

optional

(none)

password

The password if authentication is required.

optional

(none)

port

Deprecated. JMX port.

optional

1099

protocol

Deprecated. Protocol used in the JMX connection string.

optional

rmi

urlPath

Deprecated. Path used in JMX connection string.

optional

/jmxrmi

rmiServerPort

Deprecated. RMI port.

optional

45444

remoteJMX

Deprecated. Use an alternative JMX URL scheme.

optional

false

The parameters port, protocol, urlPath, rmiServerPort and remoteJMX are deprecated and should be replaced with the url parameter. If url is not defined the collector falls back to Legacy Mode and the deprecated parameters are used instead to build the connection url.
If a service requires different configuration it can be overwritten with an entry in $OPENNMS_HOME/etc/jmx-config.xml.
JMX Collection Configuration

JMX Collections are defined in the etc/jmx-datacollection-config.xml and etc/jmx-datacollection-config.d/.

Here is a snippet providing a collection definition named opennms-poller:

<jmx-collection name="opennms-poller">
    <rrd step="300">
        <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016</rra>
        <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:1488</rra>
        <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:366</rra>
        <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:366</rra>
        <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:366</rra>
    </rrd>
    <mbeans>
        <mbean name="OpenNMS Pollerd" objectname="OpenNMS:Name=Pollerd">
            <attrib name="NumPolls" alias="ONMSPollCount" type="counter"/>
        </mbean>
    </mbeans>
</jmx-collection>

Once added to etc/jmx-datacollection-config.xml you can test it using the collect command available in the Karaf Shell:

collection:collect org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.Jsr160Collector 127.0.0.1 collection=opennms-poller port=18980
Generic Resource Type

In order to support wildcard (*) in objectname, JMX collector supports generic resource types. Two changes needed to jmx configuration for this to work.

  • Create a custom resource type in etc/resource-types.d/ for ex: there is already a definition in jmx-resource.xml which defines a custom resource for kafka lag

<resource-types>
    <resourceType name="kafkaLag" label="Kafka Lag"
                  resourceLabel="${index}">
      <persistenceSelectorStrategy class="org.opennms.netmgt.collection.support.PersistAllSelectorStrategy"/>
      <storageStrategy class="org.opennms.netmgt.dao.support.SiblingColumnStorageStrategy">
		   <parameter key="sibling-column-name" value="name" />
      </storageStrategy>
    </resourceType>
</resource-types>
  • Match the resourceType name as resource-type in mbean definition

<mbean name="org.opennms.core.ipc.sink.kafka.heartbeat" resource-type="kafkaLag" objectname="org.opennms.core.ipc.sink.kafka:name=OpenNMS.Sink.*.Lag">
   <attrib name="Value" alias="Lag" type="gauge"/>
</mbean>
Resource definition

JMX objectname is the full name of Mbean in form of ( domain:key=value, key=value, ..). Wildcard (*) can exist anywhere in the objectname.

Depending on wildcard definition, use SiblingColumnStorageStrategy to extract resource label. If wildcard exists in the value ( usual case), use corresponding key as the sibling-column-name parameter. for ex: org.apache.activemq:BrokerName=*,Type=Queue,Destination=com.mycompany.myqueue

Here BrokerName can be defined as parameter for SiblingColumnStorageStrategy

   <parameter key="sibling-column-name" value="BrokerName" />

The extracted BrokerNames from the wildcard will be the resource folders in the form of nodeId/resourceTypeName/{resource-label}

Wildcard may exist in domain as well, for ex: org.apache.*:BrokerName=trap, Type=Queue. Then domain can be defined as the sibling-column-name parameter.

  <parameter key="sibling-column-name" value="domain" />

The objectname itself can be used as resource label, simply use IndexStorageStrategy as storageStrategy in resource-type definition.

3rd Party JMX Services

Some java applications provide their own JMX implementation and require certain libraries to be present on the classpath, e.g. the java application server Wildfly. In order to successfully collect data the following steps may be required:

  • Place the jmx client lib to the $OPENNMS_HOME/lib folder (e.g. jboss-cli-client.jar)

  • Configure the JMX-Collector accordingly (see below)

  • Configure the collection accordingly (see above)

Example
<service name="JMX-WILDFLY" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="url" value="service:jmx:http-remoting-jmx://${ipaddr}:9990"/>
    <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
    <parameter key="factory" value="PASSWORD-CLEAR"/>
    <parameter key="username" value="admin"/>
    <parameter key="password" value="admin"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="java"/>
    <parameter key="collection" value="jsr160"/>
    <parameter key="thresholding-enabled" value="true"/>
    <parameter key="ds-name" value="jmx-wildfly"/>
    <parameter key="friendly-name" value="jmx-wildfly"/>
</service>
<collector service="JMX-WILDFLY" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.Jsr160Collector"/>

5.3.2. SnmpCollector

The SnmpCollector is used to collect performance data through the SNMP protocol. Access to the SNMP Agent is configured through the SNMP configuration in the Web User Interface.

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.SnmpCollector

Package

core

Supported on Minion

Yes (via the SNMP proxy)

Collector Parameters
Table 80. Collector specific parameters for the SnmpCollector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the SNMP Collection to use.

required

default

thresholding-enabled

Whether collected performance data shall be tested against thresholds.

optional

true

timeout

Timeout in milliseconds to wait for SNMP responses.

optional

SNMP configuration

SNMP Collection Configuration

SNMP Collection are defined in the etc/datacollection-config.xml and etc/datacollection.d/*.xml files.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<datacollection-config rrd-repository="/var/lib/opennms/rrd/snmp/">(1)
    <snmp-collection name="default"(2)
                     snmpStorageFlag="select">(3)
        <rrd step="300">(4)
            <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016</rra>
            <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:1488</rra>
            <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:366</rra>
            <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:366</rra>
            <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:366</rra>
        </rrd>

        <include-collection dataCollectionGroup="MIB2"/>(5)
        <include-collection dataCollectionGroup="3Com"/>
        ...
        <include-collection dataCollectionGroup="VMware-Cim"/>
    </snmp-collection>
</datacollection-config>
1 Directory where to persist RRD files on the file system, ignored if NewTS is used as time series storage.
2 Name of the SNMP data collection referenced in the Collection Package in collectd-configuration.xml.
3 Configure SNMP MIB-II interface metric collection behavior: all means collect metrics from all interfaces, primary only from interface provisioned as primary interface, select only from manualy selected interfaces from the Web UI.
4 RRD archive configuration for this set of performance metrics, ignored when NewTS is used as time series storage.
5 Include device or application specific performance metric OIDS to collect.
01 snmp datacollection configuration
Figure 34. Configuration overview for SNMP data collection

5.3.3. HttpCollector

The HttpCollector is used to collect performance data via HTTP and HTTPS. Attributes are extracted from the HTTP responses using a regular expression.

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.HttpCollector

Package

core

Supported on Minion

Yes

Collector Parameters
Table 81. Collector specific parameters for the HttpCollector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the HTTP Collection to use.

required

(none)

thresholding-enabled

Whether collected performance data shall be tested against thresholds.

optional

true

port

Override the default port in the all of the URIs

optional

80

timeout

Connection and socket timeout in milliseconds

optional

3000

retry

Number of retries

optional

2

use-system-proxy

Should the system wide proxy settings be used? The system proxy settings can be configured in opennms.conf

optional

false

HTTP Collection Configuration

HTTP Collections are defined in the etc/http-datacollection-config.xml.

Here is a snippet providing a collection definition named opennms-copyright:

<http-collection name="opennms-copyright">
  <rrd step="300">
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:1488</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:366</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:366</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:366</rra>
  </rrd>
  <uris>
    <uri name="login-page">
      <url path="/opennms/login.jsp"
           matches=".*2002\-([0-9]+).*" response-range="100-399" dotall="true" >
      </url>
      <attributes>
        <attrib alias="copyrightYear" match-group="1" type="gauge"/>
      </attributes>
    </uri>
  </uris>
</http-collection>

Once added to etc/http-datacollection-config.xml you can test it using the collect command available in the Karaf Shell:

collection:collect org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.HttpCollector 127.0.0.1 collection=opennms-copyright port=8980

5.3.4. JdbcCollector

The JdbcCollector is used to collect performance data via JDBC drivers. Attributes are retrieved using SQL queries.

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.JdbcCollector

Package

core

Supported on Minion

Yes (see limitations)

Limitations on Minion

When running on Minion the data sources in opennms-datasources.xml cannot be referenced. Instead, the JDBC connection settings need be set using the service parameters instead.

Also, the JDBC driver must be properly loaded in the Minion container. By default, only the JDBC driver for PostgreSQL is available.

Collector Parameters
Table 82. Collector specific parameters for the JdbcCollector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the JDBC Collection to use

required

(empty)

data-source

Use an existing datasource defined in opennms-datasources.xml

optional

NO_DATASOURCE_FOUND

driver

Driver class name

optional

org.postgresql.Driver

url

JDBC URL

optional

jdbc:postgresql://:OPENNMS_JDBC_HOSTNAME/opennms

user

JDBC username

optional

postgres

password

JDBC password

optional

(empty string)

JDBC Collection Configuration

JDBC Collections are defined in the etc/jdbc-datacollection-config.xml.

Here is a snippet providing a collection definition named opennms-stats:

<jdbc-collection name="opennms-stats">
  <rrd step="300">
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:1488</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:366</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:366</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:366</rra>
  </rrd>
  <queries>
    <query name="opennmsQuery" ifType="ignore">
      <statement data-source="opennms">
        <queryString>select count(*) as event_count from events;</queryString>
      </statement>
      <columns>
        <column name="event_count" data-source-name="event_count" alias="event_count" type="GAUGE"/>
      </columns>
    </query>
  </queries>
</jdbc-collection>

Once added to etc/jdbc-datacollection-config.xml you can test it using the collect command available in the Karaf Shell:

collection:collect org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.JdbcCollector 127.0.0.1 collection=opennms-stats data-source=opennms

To test this same collection on Minion you must specify the JDBC settings as service attributes, for example:

collection:collect -l MINION org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.JdbcCollector 127.0.0.1 collection=opennms-stats driver=org.postgresql.Driver url=jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/opennms user=opennms password=opennms

5.3.5. JmxCollector

The JmxCollector is used to collect performance data via JMX. Attributes are extracted from the available MBeans.

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.Jsr160Collector

Package

core

Supported on Minion

Yes

Collector Parameters
Table 83. Collector specific parameters for the Jsr160Collector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the JMX Collection to use

required

(none)

thresholding-enabled

Whether collected performance data shall be tested against thresholds

optional

true

retry

Number of retries

optional

3

friendlyName

Name of the path in which the metrics should be stored

optional

Value of the port, or 'jsr160' if no port is set.

factory

The password strategy to use. Supported values are: STANDARD (for authentication), PASSWORD_CLEAR (same as STANDARD) and SASL (if secure connection is required)

optional

STANDARD

url

The connection url, e.g. service:jmx:rmi:localhost:18980. The ip address can be substituted. Use ${ipaddr} in that case, e.g.: service:jmx:rmi:${ipaddr}:18980

optional

(none)

username

The username if authentication is required.

optional

(none)

password

The password if authentication is required.

optional

(none)

port

Deprecated. JMX port.

optional

1099

protocol

Deprecated. Protocol used in the JMX connection string.

optional

rmi

urlPath

Deprecated. Path used in JMX connection string.

optional

/jmxrmi

rmiServerPort

Deprecated. RMI port.

optional

45444

remoteJMX

Deprecated. Use an alternative JMX URL scheme.

optional

false

The parameters port, protocol, urlPath, rmiServerPort and remoteJMX are deprecated and should be replaced with the url parameter. If url is not defined the collector falls back to Legacy Mode and the deprecated parameters are used instead to build the connection url.
If a service requires different configuration it can be overwritten with an entry in $OPENNMS_HOME/etc/jmx-config.xml.
JMX Collection Configuration

JMX Collections are defined in the etc/jmx-datacollection-config.xml and etc/jmx-datacollection-config.d/.

Here is a snippet providing a collection definition named opennms-poller:

<jmx-collection name="opennms-poller">
    <rrd step="300">
        <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016</rra>
        <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:1488</rra>
        <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:366</rra>
        <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:366</rra>
        <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:366</rra>
    </rrd>
    <mbeans>
        <mbean name="OpenNMS Pollerd" objectname="OpenNMS:Name=Pollerd">
            <attrib name="NumPolls" alias="ONMSPollCount" type="counter"/>
        </mbean>
    </mbeans>
</jmx-collection>

Once added to etc/jmx-datacollection-config.xml you can test it using the collect command available in the Karaf Shell:

collection:collect org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.Jsr160Collector 127.0.0.1 collection=opennms-poller port=18980
Generic Resource Type

In order to support wildcard (*) in objectname, JMX collector supports generic resource types. Two changes needed to jmx configuration for this to work.

  • Create a custom resource type in etc/resource-types.d/ for ex: there is already a definition in jmx-resource.xml which defines a custom resource for kafka lag

<resource-types>
    <resourceType name="kafkaLag" label="Kafka Lag"
                  resourceLabel="${index}">
      <persistenceSelectorStrategy class="org.opennms.netmgt.collection.support.PersistAllSelectorStrategy"/>
      <storageStrategy class="org.opennms.netmgt.dao.support.SiblingColumnStorageStrategy">
		   <parameter key="sibling-column-name" value="name" />
      </storageStrategy>
    </resourceType>
</resource-types>
  • Match the resourceType name as resource-type in mbean definition

<mbean name="org.opennms.core.ipc.sink.kafka.heartbeat" resource-type="kafkaLag" objectname="org.opennms.core.ipc.sink.kafka:name=OpenNMS.Sink.*.Lag">
   <attrib name="Value" alias="Lag" type="gauge"/>
</mbean>
Resource definition

JMX objectname is the full name of Mbean in form of ( domain:key=value, key=value, ..). Wildcard (*) can exist anywhere in the objectname.

Depending on wildcard definition, use SiblingColumnStorageStrategy to extract resource label. If wildcard exists in the value ( usual case), use corresponding key as the sibling-column-name parameter. for ex: org.apache.activemq:BrokerName=*,Type=Queue,Destination=com.mycompany.myqueue

Here BrokerName can be defined as parameter for SiblingColumnStorageStrategy

   <parameter key="sibling-column-name" value="BrokerName" />

The extracted BrokerNames from the wildcard will be the resource folders in the form of nodeId/resourceTypeName/{resource-label}

Wildcard may exist in domain as well, for ex: org.apache.*:BrokerName=trap, Type=Queue. Then domain can be defined as the sibling-column-name parameter.

  <parameter key="sibling-column-name" value="domain" />

The objectname itself can be used as resource label, simply use IndexStorageStrategy as storageStrategy in resource-type definition.

3rd Party JMX Services

Some java applications provide their own JMX implementation and require certain libraries to be present on the classpath, e.g. the java application server Wildfly. In order to successfully collect data the following steps may be required:

  • Place the jmx client lib to the $OPENNMS_HOME/lib folder (e.g. jboss-cli-client.jar)

  • Configure the JMX-Collector accordingly (see below)

  • Configure the collection accordingly (see above)

Example
<service name="JMX-WILDFLY" interval="300000" user-defined="false" status="on">
    <parameter key="url" value="service:jmx:http-remoting-jmx://${ipaddr}:9990"/>
    <parameter key="retry" value="2"/>
    <parameter key="timeout" value="3000"/>
    <parameter key="factory" value="PASSWORD-CLEAR"/>
    <parameter key="username" value="admin"/>
    <parameter key="password" value="admin"/>
    <parameter key="rrd-base-name" value="java"/>
    <parameter key="collection" value="jsr160"/>
    <parameter key="thresholding-enabled" value="true"/>
    <parameter key="ds-name" value="jmx-wildfly"/>
    <parameter key="friendly-name" value="jmx-wildfly"/>
</service>
<collector service="JMX-WILDFLY" class-name="org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.Jsr160Collector"/>

5.3.6. NSClientCollector

The NSClientCollector is used to collect performance data over HTTP from NSClient++.

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.protocols.nsclient.collector.NSClientCollector

Package

opennms-plugin-protocol-nsclient

Supported on Minion

Yes

Collector Parameters
Table 84. Collector specific parameters for the NSClientCollector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the NSClient Collection to use

optional

default

5.3.7. TcaCollector

The TcaCollector is used to collect special SNMP data from Juniper TCA Devices.

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.tca.TcaCollector

Package

opennms-plugin-collector-juniper-tca

Supported on Minion

Yes

Collector Parameters
Table 85. Collector specific parameters for the TcaCollector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the TCA Collection to use

required

5.3.8. VmwareCimCollector

The VmwareCimCollector collects ESXi host and sensor metrics from vCenter.

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.VmwareCimCollector

Package

core

Supported on Minion

Yes

Collector Parameters
Table 86. Collector specific parameters for the VmwareCimCollector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the VMWare CIM Collection to use

required

timeout

Connection timeout in milliseconds

optional

5.3.9. VmwareCollector

The VmwareCollector collects peformance metrics for managed entities from vCenter.

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.VmwareCollector

Package

core

Supported on Minion

Yes

Collector Parameters
Table 87. Collector specific parameters for the VmwareCollector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the VMWare Collection to use

required

timeout

Connection timeout in milliseconds

optional

5.3.10. WmiCollector

The WmiCollector collects peformance metrics from Windows systems using Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI).

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.WmiCollector

Package

core

Supported on Minion

Yes

Collector Parameters
Table 88. Collector specific parameters for the WmiCollector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the WMI Collection to use

required

5.3.11. WsManCollector

The WsManCollector collects peformance metrics using the Web Services-Management (WS-Management) protocol.

Web Services-Management (WS-Management) is a DMTF open standard defining a SOAP-based protocol for the management of servers, devices, applications and various Web services. Windows Remote Management (WinRM) is the Microsoft implementation of WS-Management Protocol.

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.WsManCollector

Package

core

Supported on Minion

Yes

Collector Parameters
Table 89. Collector specific parameters for the WsManCollector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the WS-Man Collection to use

required

WS-Management Setup

Before setting up OpenNMS Horizon to communicate with a WS-Management agent, you should confirm that it is properly configured and reachable from the OpenNMS Horizon system. If you need help enabling the WS-Management agent, consult the documentation from the manufacturer. Here are some link resources that could help:

We suggest using the Openwsman command line client for validating authentication and connectivity. Packages are available for most distributions under wsmancli.

For example:

wsman identify -h localhost -P 5985 -u wsman -p secret

Once validated, add the agent specific details to the OpenNMS Horizon configuration, defined in the next section.

Troubleshooting and Commands

For troubleshooting there is a set of commands you can use in Powershell verified on Microsoft Windows Server 2012.

Enable WinRM in PowerShell
Enable-PSRemoting
Setup Firewall for WinRM over HTTP
netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="WinRM-HTTP" dir=in localport=5985 protocol=TCP action=allow
Setup Firewall for WinRM over HTTPS
netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="WinRM-HTTPS" dir=in localport=5986 protocol=TCP action=allow
Test WinRM on local Windows Server
winrm id
Show WinRM configuration on Windows Server
winrm get winrm/config
Show listener for configuration on Windows Server
winrm e winrm/config/listener
Test connectivity from a Linux system
nc -z -w1 <windows-server-ip-or-host> 5985;echo $?
Use BasicAuthentication just with WinRM over HTTPS with verifiable certificates in production environment.
Enable BasicAuthentication
winrm set winrm/config/client/auth '@{Basic="true"}'
winrm set winrm/config/service/auth '@{Basic="true"}'
winrm set winrm/config/service '@{AllowUnencrypted="true"}'
WS-Management Agent Configuration

The agent specific configuration details are maintained in etc/wsman-config.xml. This file has a similar structure as etc/snmp-config.xml, which the reader may already be familiar with.

This file is consulted when a connection to a WS-Man Agent is made. If the IP address of the agent is matched by the range, specific or ip-match elements of a definition, then the attributes on that definition are used to connect to the agent. Otherwise, the attributes on the outer wsman-config definition are used.

This etc/wsman-config.xml files is automatically reloaded when modified.

Here is an example with several definitions:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<wsman-config retry="3" timeout="1500" ssl="true" strict-ssl="false" path="/wsman">
    <definition ssl="true" strict-ssl="false" path="/wsman" username="root" password="calvin" product-vendor="Dell" product-version="iDRAC 6">
        <range begin="192.168.1.1" end="192.168.1.10"/>
    </definition>
    <definition ssl="false" port="5985" path="/wsman" username="Administrator" password="P@ssword">
        <ip-match>172.23.1-4.1-255</ip-match>
        <specific>172.23.1.105</specific>
    </definition>
</wsman-config>
Table 90. Collector configuration attributes
Attribute Description Default

timeout

HTTP Connection and response timeout in milliseconds.

HTTP client default

retry

Number of retries on connection failure.

0

username

Username for basic authentication.

none

password

Password used for basic authentication.

none

port

HTTP/S port

Default for protocol

max-elements

Maximum number of elements to retrieve in a single request.

no limit

ssl

Enable SSL

False

strict-ssl

Enforce SSL certificate verification.

True

path

Path in the URL to the WS-Management service.

/

product-vendor

Used to overwrite the detected product vendor.

none

product-version

Used to overwrite the detected product version.

none

gss-auth

Enables GSS authentication. When enabled a reverse lookup is performed on the target IP address in order to determine the canonical host name.

False

If you try to connect against Microsoft Windows Server make sure to set specific ports for WinRM connections. By default Microsoft Windows Server uses port TCP/5985 for plain text and port TCP/5986 for SSL connections.
WS-Management Collection Configuration

Configuration for the WS-Management collector is stored in etc/wsman-datacollection-config.xml and etc/wsman-datacollection.d/*.xml.

The contents of these files are automatically merged and reloaded when changed. The default WS-Management collection looks as follows:
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<wsman-datacollection-config rrd-repository="${install.share.dir}/rrd/snmp/">
    <collection name="default">
        <rrd step="300">
            <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016</rra>
            <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:1488</rra>
            <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:366</rra>
            <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:366</rra>
            <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:366</rra>
        </rrd>

        <!--
             Include all of the available system definitions
         -->
        <include-all-system-definitions/>
    </collection>
</wsman-datacollection-config>

The magic happens with the <include-all-system-definitions/> element which automatically includes all of the system definitions into the collection group.

If required, you can include a specific system-definition with <include-system-definition>sys-def-name</include-system-definition>.

System definitions and related groups can be defined in the root etc/wsman-datacollection-config.xml file, but it is preferred that be added to a device specific configuration files in etc/wsman-datacollection-config.d/*.xml.

Avoid modifying any of the distribution configuration files and create new ones to store you specific details instead.

Here is an example configuration file for a Dell iDRAC:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<wsman-datacollection-config>
    <group name="drac-system"
           resource-uri="http://schemas.dell.com/wbem/wscim/1/cim-schema/2/root/dcim/DCIM_ComputerSystem"
           resource-type="node">
        <attrib name="OtherIdentifyingInfo" index-of="#IdentifyingDescriptions matches '.*ServiceTag'" alias="serviceTag" type="String"/>
    </group>

    <group name="drac-power-supply"
           resource-uri="http://schemas.dmtf.org/wbem/wscim/1/*"
           dialect="http://schemas.microsoft.com/wbem/wsman/1/WQL"
           filter="select InputVoltage,InstanceID,PrimaryStatus,SerialNumber,TotalOutputPower from DCIM_PowerSupplyView where DetailedState != 'Absent'"
           resource-type="dracPowerSupplyIndex">
        <attrib name="InputVoltage" alias="inputVoltage" type="Gauge"/>
        <attrib name="InstanceID" alias="instanceId" type="String"/>
        <attrib name="PrimaryStatus" alias="primaryStatus" type="Gauge"/>
        <attrib name="SerialNumber" alias="serialNumber" type="String"/>
        <attrib name="TotalOutputPower" alias="totalOutputPower" type="Gauge"/>
    </group>

    <system-definition name="Dell iDRAC (All Version)">
        <rule>#productVendor matches '^Dell.*' and #productVersion matches '.*iDRAC.*'</rule>
        <include-group>drac-system</include-group>
        <include-group>drac-power-supply</include-group>
    </system-definition>
</wsman-datacollection-config>
System Definitions

Rules in the system definition are written using SpEL expressions.

The expression has access to the following variables in it`s evaluation context:

Name Type

(root)

org.opennms.netmgt.model.OnmsNode

agent

org.opennms.netmgt.collection.api.CollectionAgent

productVendor

java.lang.String

productVersion

java.lang.String

If a particular agent is matched by any of the rules, then the collector will attempt to collect the referenced groups from the agent.

Group Definitions

Groups are retrieved by issuing an Enumerate command against a particular Resource URI and parsing the results. The Enumerate commands can include an optional filter in order to filter the records and attributes that are returned.

When configuring a filter, you must also specify the dialect.

The resource type used by the group must of be of type node or a generic resource type. Interface level resources are not supported.

When using a generic resource type, the IndexStorageStrategy cannot be used since records have no implicit index. Instead, you must use an alternative such as the SiblingColumnStorageStrategy.

If a record includes a multi-valued key, you can collect the value at a specific index with an index-of expression. This is best demonstrated with an example. Let`s assume we wanted to collect the ServiceTag from the following record:

<IdentifyingDescriptions>CIM:GUID</IdentifyingDescriptions>
<IdentifyingDescriptions>CIM:Tag</IdentifyingDescriptions>
<IdentifyingDescriptions>DCIM:ServiceTag</IdentifyingDescriptions>
<OtherIdentifyingInfo>45454C4C-3700-104A-8052-C3C01BB25031</OtherIdentifyingInfo>
<OtherIdentifyingInfo>mainsystemchassis</OtherIdentifyingInfo>
<OtherIdentifyingInfo>C8BBBP1</OtherIdentifyingInfo>

Specifying, the attribute name OtherIdentifyingInfo would not be sufficient, since there are multiple values for that key. Instead, we want to retrieve the value for the OtherIdentifyingInfo key at the same index where IdentifyingDescriptions is set to DCIM:ServiceTag.

This can be achieved using the following attribute definition:

<attrib name="OtherIdentifyingInfo" index-of="#IdentifyingDescriptions matches '.*ServiceTag'" alias="serviceTag" type="String"/>

5.3.12. XmlCollector

The XmlCollector is used to collect and extract metrics from a XML and JSON documents.

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.protocols.xml.collector.XmlCollector

Package

core

Supported on Minion

Yes (see limitations)

Limitations on Minion

The following handlers are not currently supported on Minion:

  • DefaultJsonCollectionHandler

  • Sftp3gppXmlCollectionHandler

  • Sftp3gppVTDXmlCollectionHandler

Collector Parameters
Table 91. Collector specific parameters for the XmlCollector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the XML Collection to use

required

-

handler-class

Class used to perform the collection

optional

org.opennms.protocols.xml.collector.DefaultXmlCollectionHandler

The available handlers include:

  • org.opennms.protocols.xml.collector.DefaultXmlCollectionHandler

  • org.opennms.protocols.xml.collector.Sftp3gppXmlCollectionHandler

  • org.opennms.protocols.xml.vtdxml.DefaultVTDXmlCollectionHandler

  • org.opennms.protocols.xml.vtdxml.Sftp3gppVTDXmlCollectionHandler

  • org.opennms.protocols.json.collector.DefaultJsonCollectionHandler

  • org.opennms.protocols.http.collector.HttpCollectionHandler

XML Collection Configuration

XML Collections are defined in the etc/xml-datacollection-config.xml and etc/xml-datacollection/.

Here is a snippet providing a collection definition named xml-opennms-nodes:

<xml-collection name="xml-opennms-nodes">
  <rrd step="300">
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:12:1488</rra>
    <rra>RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:288:366</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MAX:0.5:288:366</rra>
    <rra>RRA:MIN:0.5:288:366</rra>
  </rrd>
  <xml-source url="http://admin:admin@{ipaddr}:8980/opennms/rest/nodes">
     <request method="GET">
        <parameter name="use-system-proxy" value="true"/>
      </request>
    <import-groups>xml-datacollection/opennms-nodes.xml</import-groups>
  </xml-source>
</xml-collection

The request element can have the following child elements:

Parameter

Description

Required

Default value

timeout

The connection and socket timeout in milliseconds

optional

retries

How often should the request be repeated in case of an error?

optional

0

use-system-proxy

Should the system wide proxy settings be used? The system proxy settings can be configured in opennms.conf

optional

false

The referenced opennms-nodes.xml file contains:

<xml-groups>
    <xml-group name="nodes" resource-type="node" resource-xpath="/nodes">
        <xml-object name="totalCount" type="GAUGE" xpath="@totalCount"/>
    </xml-group>
</xml-groups>

With the configuration in place, you can test it using the collect command available in the Karaf Shell:

collection:collect -n 1 org.opennms.protocols.xml.collector.XmlCollector 127.0.0.1 collection=xml-opennms-nodes
Caveats

The org.opennms.protocols.json.collector.DefaultJsonCollectionHandler requires the fetched document to be single element of type object to make xpath query work. If the root element is an array, it will be wrapped in an object whereas the original array is accessible as /elements.

5.3.13. XmpCollector

The XmpCollector collects peformance metrics via the X/Open Management Protocol API (XMP) protocol.

Collector Facts

Class Name

org.opennms.netmgt.protocols.xmp.collector.XmpCollector

Package

opennms-plugin-protocol-xmp

Supported on Minion

No

Collector Parameters
Table 92. Collector specific parameters for the XmpCollector
Parameter Description Required Default value

collection

The name of the XMP Collection to use

required

port

The TCP port on which the agent communicates

required

authenUser

The username used for authenticating to the agent

optional

(none)

timeout

The timeout used when communicating with the agent

optional

3000

retry

The number of retries permitted when timeout expires

optional

0

6. Thresholds

OpenNMS Horizon has the ability to monitor the performance of a managed entity’s resource(s) by using various thresholding techniques. These techniques, or algorithms, can be used applied against any metric data (telemetry) that has been gathered such as: CPU Load, Bandwidth, Disk space, etc. and, when triggered, causes Alarms to be generated. There are a few basic thresholding algorithms available within OpenNMS:

  • High

  • Low

  • Absolute Value

  • Relative Change

6.1. Threshold Service Daemon

Threshd, the Threshold Service Daemon, has the very complex task of keep state of performance of your corporate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). There are various threshold algorithms that can be employed to determine the state of a resource’s performance that result in Alarms that are then managed with standard Alarm workflows.

6.2. Configuring Thresholds

Configuration of a threshold requires editing two main XML entities: <threshd-configuration/> and <thresholding-config/>.

In Horizon 24.0.0, a two new attributes were added to the <threshd-configuration/> that directs the thresholders to continue to send events informing the current value of a triggered threshold. By default, these are not instantiated as Alarms. The two new new optional configuration attributes for this feature. * sustainedUEI * send-sustained-events

The flag controlling this behavior, send-sustained-events, disabled by default. The threshold sustained UEI is optional and a default is provided along with an event configuration for this UEI: uei.opennms.org/threshold/thresholdSustained.

alarm-data Schema Definition (XSD)
<attribute name="sustainedUEI" type="string" use="optional" default="uei.opennms.org/threshold/thresholdSustained">
  <annotation>
    <documentation>
      The UEI of the event to send for a triggered threshold each time a threshold value is collected that crosses the threshold until the threshold is rearmed.
    </documentation>
  </annotation>
</attribute>

<attribute type="boolean" name="send-sustained-events" use="optional" default="false">
  <annotation>
    <documentation>Indicates that the system should send threshold sustained events each time a triggering value is collected.</documentation>
  </annotation>
</attribute>

6.3. Threshold Notes

A new feature was introduced in Horizon 24.0.0 that allows users to enable generating subsequent events each time an active threshold is measured and is still meeting the triggering value. By default, this new event has one of the following UEI’s:

  • uei.opennms.org/threshold/highThresholdSustained

  • uei.opennms.org/threshold/lowThresholdSustained

This new event has all the same parameters as the triggering events:

  • uei.opennms.org/threshold/highThresholdExceeded

  • uei.opennms.org/threshold/lowThresholdExceeded

Like the other default threshold UEIs, the sustained UEI can be changed to a custom UEI.

6.4. Shell Commands

A number of Karaf Shell commands are made available to help administer and diagnose issues related to performance data collection.

To use the commands, log into the Karaf Shell on your system using:

ssh -p 8101 admin@localhost
The Karaf shell uses the same credential as the web interface. Users must be associated with the ADMIN role to access the shell.
In order to keep the session open while executing long-running tasks without any user input add -o ServerAliveInterval=10 to your ssh command.

6.4.1. Ad-hoc collection

The collection:collect Karaf Shell command can be used to trigger and perform a collection on any of the available collectors.

The results of the collection (also referred to as the "collection set") will be displayed in the console after a successful collection. The resulting collection set will not be persisted, nor will any thresholding be applied.

List all of the available collectors:

collection:list-collectors

Invoke the SnmpCollector against interface 127.0.0.1 on NODES:n1.

collection:collect -n NODES:n1 org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.SnmpCollector 127.0.0.1

Invoke the SnmpCollector against interface 127.0.0.1 on NODES:n1 via the MINION location.

collection:collect -l MINION -n NODES:n1 org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.SnmpCollector 127.0.0.1
Setting the location on the command line will override the node’s location.
If you see errors caused by RequestTimedOutException`s when invoking a collector at a remote location, consider increasing the time to live. By default, `collectd will use the service interval as the time to live.

Invoke the JdbcCollector against 127.0.0.1 while specifying some of the collector parameters.

collection:collect org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.JdbcCollector 127.0.0.1 collection=PostgreSQL driver=org.postgresql.Driver url=jdbc:postgresql://OPENNMS_JDBC_HOSTNAME/postgres user=postgres
Some collectors, such as the JdbcCollector, can be invoked without specifying a node.

Persist a collection :

collection:collect -l MINION -n NODES=n1 -p org.opennms.netmgt.collectd.SnmpCollector 127.0.0.1
-p/--persist option will persist collection set there by introducing an extra datapoint other than data collected during already configured collection interval.

A complete list of options is available using:

collection:collect --help

6.4.2. Interpreting the output

After a successful collection, the collection set will be displayed in the following format:

resource a
  group 1
    attribute
    attribute
  group 2
    attribute
resource b
  group 1
    attribute
...

The description of the resources, groups and attribute may differ between collectors. This output is independent of the persistence strategy that is being used.

6.4.3. Stress Testing

The metrics:stress Karaf Shell command can be used to simulate load on the active persistence strategy, whether it be RRDtool, JRobin, or Newts.

The tool works by generating collection sets, similar to those built when performing data collection, and sending these to the active persistence layer. By using the active persistence layer, we ensure that we use the same write path which is used by the actual data collection services.

Generate samples for 10 nodes every 15 seconds and printing the statistic report every 30 seconds:

metrics:stress -n 10 -i 15 -r 30

While active, the command will continue to generate and persist collection sets. During this time you can monitor the system I/O and other relevant statistics.

When your done, use CTRL+C to stop the stress tool.

A complete list of options is available using:

metrics:stress --help

6.4.4. Interpreting the output

The statistics output by the tool can be be interpreted as follows:

numeric-attributes-generated

The number of numeric attributes that were sent to the persistence layer. We have no guarantee as to whether or not these were actually persisted.

string-attributes-generated

The number of string attributes that were sent to the persistence layer. We have no guarantee as to whether or not these were actually persisted.

batches

The count is used to indicate how many batches of collection sets (one at every interval) were sent to the persistence layer. The timers show how much time was spent generating the batch, and sending the batch to the persistence layer.

7. Events

Events are central to the operation of the OpenNMS Horizon platform, so it’s critical to have a firm grasp of this topic.

Whenever something in OpenNMS Horizon appears to work by magic, it’s probably events working behind the curtain.

7.1. Anatomy of an Event

Events are structured historical records of things that happen in OpenNMS Horizon and the nodes, interfaces, and services it manages. Every event has a number of fixed fields and zero or more parameters.

Mandatory Fields
UEI (Universal Event Identifier)

A string uniquely identifying the event’s type. UEIs are typically formatted in the style of a URI, but the only requirement is that they start with the string uei..

Event Label

A short, static label summarizing the gist of all instances of this event.

Description

A long-form description describing all instances of this event.

Log Message

A long-form log message describing this event, optionally including expansions of fields and parameters so that the value is tailored to the event at hand.

Severity

A severity for this event type. Possible values range from Cleared to Critical.

Event ID

A numeric identifier used to look up a specific event in the OpenNMS Horizon system.

Notable Optional Fields
Operator Instruction

A set of instructions for an operator to respond appropriately to an event of this type.

Alarm Data

If this field is provided for an event, OpenNMS Horizon will create, update, or clear alarms for events of that type according to the alarm-data specifics.

7.2. Sources of Events

Events may originate within OpenNMS Horizon itself or from outside.

Internally-generated events can be the result of the platform’s monitoring and management functions (e.g. a monitored node becoming totally unavailable results in an event with the UEI uei.opennms.org/nodes/nodeDown) or they may act as inputs or outputs of housekeeping processes.

The following subsections summarize the mechanisms by which externally-created events can arrive.

7.2.1. SNMP Traps

If SNMP-capable devices in the network are configured to send traps to OpenNMS Horizon, these traps are transformed into events according to pre-configured rules. The Trapd service daemon, which enables OpenNMS Horizon to receive SNMP traps, is enabled by default.

Disabling the Trapd service daemon will render OpenNMS Horizon incapable of receiving SNMP traps.

Event definitions are included with OpenNMS Horizon for traps from many vendors' equipment.

7.2.2. Syslog Messages

Syslog messages sent over the network to OpenNMS Horizon can be transformed into events according to pre-configured rules.

The Syslogd service daemon, which enables OpenNMS Horizon to receive syslog messages over the network, must be enabled for this functionality to work. This service daemon is disabled by default.
Parsers

Different parsers can be used to convert the syslog message fields into OpenNMS Horizon event fields.

Parser Description

org.opennms.netmgt.syslogd.CustomSyslogParser

Default parser that uses a regex statement to parse the syslog header.

org.opennms.netmgt.syslogd.RadixTreeSyslogParser

Parser that uses an internal list of grok-style statements to parse the syslog header.

org.opennms.netmgt.syslogd.SyslogNGParser

Parser that strictly parses messages in the default pattern of syslog-ng.

org.opennms.netmgt.syslogd.Rfc5424SyslogParser

Parser that strictly parses the RFC 5424 format for syslog messages.

RadixTreeSyslogParser

The RadixTreeSyslogParser normally uses a set of internally-defined patterns to parse multiple syslog message formats. If you wish to customize the set of patterns, you can put a new set of patterns into a syslog-grok-patterns.txt in the etc directory for OpenNMS Horizon.

The patterns are defined in grok-style statements where each token is defined by a %{PATTERN:semantic} clause. Whitespace in the pattern will match 0…​n whitespace characters and character literals in the pattern will match the corresponding characters. The '%' character literal must be escaped by using a backslash, ie. '\%'.

The RadixTreeSyslogParser’s grok implementation only supports a limited number of pattern types. However, these patterns should be sufficient to parse any syslog message format.

The patterns should be arranged in the file from most specific to least specific since the first pattern to successfully match the syslog message will be used to construct the OpenNMS Horizon event.

Pattern Description

HOSTNAME

String containing only valid hostname characters (alphanumeric plus '.', '-' and '_').

`HOSTNAMEORIP

String containing only valid hostname characters or IP address characters (IPv4 or IPv6).

INT

Positive integer.

`IPADDRESS

String containing only valid IP address characters (IPv4 or IPv6).

MONTH

3-character English month abbreviation.

NOSPACE

String that contains no whitespace.

STRING

String. Because this matches any character, it must be followed by a delimiter in the pattern string.

Semantic Token Description

day

2-digit day of month (1-31).

facilityPriority

Facility-priority integer.

hostname

String hostname (unqualified or FQDN), IPv4 address, or IPv6 address.

hour

2-digit hour of day (0-23).

message

Remaining string message.

messageId

String message ID.

minute

2-digit minute (0-59).

month

2-digit month (1-12).

parm*

String generic parameter where the parameter’s key is the identifier following "parm" in the semantic token (e.x. parmComponentId maps to a string parameter with key "ComponentId").

processId

String process ID.

processName

String process name.

second

2-digit second (0-59).

secondFraction

1- to 6-digit fractional second value as a string.

timezone

String timezone value.

version

Version.

year

4-digit year.

7.2.3. ReST

Posting an event in XML format to the appropriate endpoint in the OpenNMS Horizon ReST API will cause the creation of a corresponding event, just as with the XML-TCP interface.

7.2.4. XML-TCP

Any application or script can create custom events in OpenNMS Horizon by sending properly-formatted XML data over a TCP socket.

7.2.5. Receiving IBM Tivoli Event Integration Facility Events

OpenNMS can be configured to receive Events sent using the Tivoli Event Integration Facility. These EIF events are translated into OpenNMS events using preconfigured rules. The resulting UEI are anchored in the uei.opennms.org/vendor/IBM/EIF/ namespace, with the name of the EIF event class appended.

A sample event configuration for the OMEGAMON_BASE class is included with OpenNMS.

Configuring the EIF Adapter

Once OpenNMS is started and the Karaf shell is accessible, you can install the EIF Adapter feature and configure it to listen on a specific interface and port.

By default the EIF Adapter is configured to listen on TCP port 1828 on all interfaces.
OSGi login, installation, and configuration of the EIF Adapter
[root@localhost /root]# $ ssh -p 8101 admin@localhost
...
opennms> feature:install eif-adapter
opennms> config:edit org.opennms.features.eifadapter
opennms> config:property-set interface 0.0.0.0
opennms> config:property-set port 1828
opennms> config:update

You can check the routes status with the camel:* commands and/or inspect the log with log:tail for any obvious errors. The feature has a debug level logging that can be used to debug operations.

Documentation on using the OSGi console embedded in OpenNMS and the related camel commands.
Features installed through the Karaf shell persist only as long as the ${OPENNMS_HOME}/data directory remains intact. To enable the feature more permanently, add it to the featuresBoot list in ${OPENNMS_HOME}/etc/org.apache.karaf.features.cfg.

You should now be able to configure your EIF forwarders to send to this destination, and their events will be translated into OpenNMS Events and written to the event bus.

Troubleshooting

If events are not reaching OpenNMS, check whether the event source (EIF Forwarder) is correctly configured. Check your event destination configuration. In particular review the HOSTNAME and PORT parameters. Also check that your situations are configured to forward to that EIF destination.

If those appear to be correct verify that the EIF Forwarder can communicate with OpenNMS over the configured port (default 1828).

Review the OSGi log with log:tail or the camel:* commands.

7.2.6. TL1 Autonomous Messages

Autonomous messages can be retrieved from certain TL1-enabled equipment and transformed into events.

The Tl1d service daemon, which enables OpenNMS Horizon to receive TL1 autonomous messages, must be enabled for this functionality to work. This service daemon is disabled by default. :imagesdir: ../../../images

7.2.7. Sink

Events can also be created by routing them to a specific topic on Kafka / ActiveMQ.

The topic name should be of the form OpenNMS.Sink.Events where OpenNMS is default instance id of OpenNMS Horizon. The instance id is configurable through a system property org.opennms.instance.id.

To enable Sink API to consume events, following system property needs to be added.

echo 'org.opennms.netmgt.eventd.sink.enable=true' > "$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/opennms.properties.d/event-sink.properties"

For events to be consumed from Kafka, sink strategy should be changed to kafka by following commands.

echo 'org.opennms.core.ipc.sink.strategy=kafka
org.opennms.core.ipc.sink.kafka.bootstrap.servers=127.0.0.1:9092' >> "$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/opennms.properties.d/kafka.properties"

7.3. The Event Bus

At the heart of OpenNMS Horizon lies an event bus. Any OpenNMS Horizon component can publish events to the bus, and any component can subscribe to receive events of interest that have been published on the bus. This publish-subscribe model enables components to use events as a mechanism to send messages to each other. For example, the provisioning subsystem of OpenNMS Horizon publishes a node-added event whenever a new node is added to the system. Other subsystems with an interest in new nodes subscribe to the node-added event and automatically receive these events, so they know to start monitoring and managing the new node if their configuration dictates. The publisher and subscriber components do not need to have any knowledge of each other, allowing for a clean division of labor and lessening the programming burden to add entirely new OpenNMS Horizon subsystems or modify the behavior of existing ones.

7.3.1. Associate an Event to a given node

There are 2 ways to associate an existing node to a given event prior sending it to the Event Bus:

  • Set the nodeId of the node in question to the event.

  • For requisitioned nodes, set the _foreignSource and _foreignId as parameters to the event. Then, any incoming event without a nodeId and these 2 parameters will trigger a lookup on the DB; if a node is found, the nodeId attribute will be dynamically set into the event, regardless which method has been used to send it to the Event Bus. :imagesdir: ../../images

7.4. Event Configuration

The back-end configuration surrounding events is broken into two areas: the configuration of Eventd itself, and the configuration of all types of events known to OpenNMS Horizon.

7.4.1. The eventd-configuration.xml file

The overall behavior of Eventd is configured in the file OPENNMS_HOME/etc/eventd-configuration.xml. This file does not need to be changed in most installations. The configurable items include:

TCPAddress

The IP address to which the Eventd XML/TCP listener will bind. Defaults to 127.0.0.1.

TCPPort

The TCP port number on TCPAddress to which the Eventd XML/TCP listener will bind. Defaults to 5817.

UDPAddress

The IP address to which the Eventd XML/UDP listener will bind. Defaults to 127.0.0.1.

UDPPort

The UDP port number on TCPAddress to which the Eventd XML/UDP listener will bind. Defaults to 5817.

receivers

The number of threads allocated to service the event intake work done by Eventd.

queueLength

The maximum number of events that may be queued for processing. Additional events will be dropped. Defaults to unlimited.

getNextEventID

An SQL query statement used to retrieve the ID of the next new event. Changing this setting is not recommended.

socketSoTimeoutRequired

Whether to set a timeout value on the Eventd receiver socket.

socketSoTimeoutPeriod

The socket timeout, in milliseconds, to set if socketSoTimeoutRequired is set to yes.

logEventSummaries

Whether to log a simple (terse) summary of every event at level INFO. Useful when troubleshooting event processing on busy systems where DEBUG logging is not practical.

7.4.2. The eventconf.xml file and its tributaries

The set of known events is configured in OPENNMS_HOME/etc/eventconf.xml. This file opens with a <global> element, whose <security> child element defines which event fields may not be overridden in the body of an event submitted via any Eventd listener. This mechanism stops a mailicious actor from, for instance, sending an event whose operator-action field amounts to a phishing attack.

After the <global> element, this file consists of a series of <event-file> elements. The content of each <event-file> element specifies the path of a tributary file whose contents will be read and incorporated into the event configuration. These paths are resolved relative to the OPENNMS_HOME/etc directory; absolute paths are not allowed.

Each tributary file contains a top-level <events> element with one or more <event> child elements. Consider the following event definition:

   <event>
      <uei>uei.opennms.org/nodes/nodeLostService</uei>
      <event-label>OpenNMS-defined node event: nodeLostService</event-label>
      <descr>&lt;p>A %service% outage was identified on interface
            %interface% because of the following condition: %parm[eventReason]%.&lt;/p> &lt;p>
            A new Outage record has been created and service level
            availability calculations will be impacted until this outage is
            resolved.&lt;/p></descr>
      <logmsg dest="logndisplay">
            %service% outage identified on interface %interface%.
        </logmsg>
      <severity>Minor</severity>
      <alarm-data reduction-key="%uei%:%dpname%:%nodeid%:%interface%:%service%" alarm-type="1" auto-clean="false"/>
   </event>

Every event definition has this same basic structure. See Anatomy of an Event for a discussion of the structural elements.

A word about severities

When setting severities of events, it’s important to consider each event in the context of your infrastructure as a whole. Events whose severity is critical at the zoomed-in level of a single device may not merit a Critical severity in the zoomed-out view of your entire enterprise. Since an event with Critical severity can never have its alarms escalated, this severity level should usually be reserved for events that unequivocally indicate a truly critical impact to the business. Rock legend Nigel Tufnel offered some wisdom on the subject.

Replacement tokens

Various tokens can be included in the description, log message, operator instruction and automatic actions for each event. These tokens will be replaced by values from the current event when the text for the event is constructed. Not all events will have values for all tokens, and some refer specifically to information available only in events derived from SNMP traps.

%eventid%

The event’s numeric database ID

%uei%

The Universal Event Identifier for the event.

%source%

The source of the event (which OpenNMS Horizon service daemon created it).

%time%

The time of the event.

%dpname%

The ID of the Minion (formerly distributed poller) that the event was received on.

%nodeid%

The numeric node ID of the device that caused the event, if any.

%nodelabel%

The node label for the node given in %nodeid% if available.

%host%
%interface%

The IP interface associated with the event, if any.

%interfaceresolv%

Does a reverse lookup on the %interface% and returns its name if available.

%service%

The service associated with the event, if any.

%severity%

The severity of the event.

%snmphost%

The host of the SNMP agent that generated the event.

%id%

The SNMP Enterprise OID for the event.

%idtext%

The decoded (human-readable) SNMP Enterprise OID for the event (?).

%ifalias%

The interface' SNMP ifAlias.

%generic%

The Generic trap-type number for the event.

%specific%

The Specific trap-type number for the event.

%community%

The community string for the trap.

%version%

The SNMP version of the trap.

%snmp%

The SNMP information associated with the event.

%operinstruct%

The operator instructions for the event.

%mouseovertext%

The mouse over text for the event.

Parameter tokens

Many events carry additional information in parameters (see Anatomy of an Event). These parameters may start life as SNMP trap variable bindings, or varbinds for short. You can access event parameters using the parm replacement token, which takes several forms:

%parm[all]%

Space-separated list of all parameter values in the form parmName1="parmValue1" parmName2="parmValue2" and so on.

%parm[values-all]%

Space-separated list of all parameter values (without their names) associated with the event.

%parm[names-all]%

Space-separated list of all parameter names (without their values) associated with the event.

%parm[<name>]%

Will return the value of the parameter named <name> if it exists.

%parm[##]%

Will return the total number of parameters as an integer.

%parm[#<num>]%

Will return the value of parameter number <num> (one-indexed).

%parm[name-#<num>]%

Will return the name of parameter number <num> (one-indexed).

The structure of the eventconf.xml tributary files

The ordering of event definitions is very important, as an incoming event is matched against them in order. It is possible and often useful to have several event definitions which could match variant forms of a given event, for example based on the values of SNMP trap variable bindings.

The tributary files included via the <event-file> tag have been broken up by vendor. When OpenNMS Horizon starts, each tributary file is loaded in order. The ordering of events inside each tributary file is also preserved.

The tributary files listed at the very end of eventconf.xml contain catch-all event definitions. When slotting your own event definitions, take care not to place them below these catch-all files; otherwise your definitions will be effectively unreachable.

A few tips
  • To save memory and shorten startup times, you may wish to remove event definition files that you know you do not need.

  • If you need to customize some events in one of the default tributary files, you may wish to make a copy of the file containing only the customized events, and slot the copy above the original; this practice will make it easier to maintain your customizations in case the default file changes in a future release of OpenNMS Horizon.

7.4.3. Reloading the event configuration

After making manual changes to OPENNMS_HOME/etc/eventconf.xml or any of its tributary files, you can trigger a reload of the event configuration by issuing the following command on the OpenNMS Horizon server:

OPENNMS_HOME/bin/send-event.pl uei.opennms.org/internal/reloadDaemonConfig -p 'daemonName Eventd'

7.5. Debugging

When debugging events, it may be helpful to lower the minimum severity at which Eventd will log from the default level of WARN. To change this setting, edit OPENNMS_HOME/etc/log4j2.xml and locate the following line:

        <KeyValuePair key="eventd"               value="WARN" />

Changes to log42.xml will be take effect within 60 seconds with no extra action needed. At level DEBUG, Eventd will log a verbose description of every event it handles to OPENNMS_HOME/logs/eventd.log. On busy systems, this setting may create so much noise as to be impractical. In these cases, you can get terse event summaries by setting Eventd to log at level INFO and setting logEventSummaries="yes" in OPENNMS_HOME/etc/eventd-configuration.xml. Note that changes to eventd-configuration.xml require a full restart of OpenNMS Horizon.

8. Alarms

OpenNMS Horizon has the ability to monitor the state of problems with its managed entities (ME), their resources, the services they provide, as well as the applications they host; or more simply, the Network. In OpenNMS Horizon, the state of these problems are characterized as Alarms.

In the beginning, there were Events

Before Alarmd was created, OpenNMS' Events (or messages) were used not only as interprocess communication messages (IPC), but also as indications of problems in the network. Even today, OpenNMS Events still carry problem state attributes such as: Acknowledgement and Severity. However, these attributes have long since been functionally deprecated now that Alarms are used as the indicator for problems in the network, (see also Situations and Business Services).

A significant change occurred with the release of Horizon 23.0.0 (H23). Prior to H23 and since the introduction of Alarms in OpenNMS, Alarmd was designed and configured to track the state of a problem using two Alarms; a Down and an Up Alarm. Now, OpenNMS is designed with the intention to use a single Alarm to track the state of a problem. The old behavior can be re-enabled by setting the system property org.opennms.alarmd.legacyAlarmState = true.

8.1. Single Alarm Tracking Problem States

First occurrence of a Service Down problem (SNMP), Alarm instantiated

single alarm 1

The Service Down Event from the Poller (via clicking on Alarm count)

single alarm 2

Alarm is cleared immediately (no longer creating separate Alarm for Normal state)

single alarm 3

Both Service Down and Service restored Events from the Poller

single alarm 4

The Second occurence of the Service Down problem (SNMP), Alarm reduced

single alarm 5

Both Service Down Events and the previous Service restored Event from the Poller

single alarm 6

The Alarm is again cleared immediately (notice counter doesn’t increment)

single alarm 7

Both Service Down and restored Events

single alarm 8

8.2. Alarm Service Daemon

Alarmd, the Alarm Service Daemon, has the very simple task of processing Events representing problems in the Network. It either instantiates a new alarm for tracking a problem’s state or reducing a reoccurring Event of an existing problem into the same Alarm. (Also known as Alarm de-duplication)

Prior to OpenNMS Horizon version 23.0.0 (H23), Alarmd had no configuration. With the release of H23, Drools is now imbedded directly inline with Alarmd’s Event processing function. This provides users with a more robust infrastructure for the effective management of workflow and problem states in the Network. Business rules now replace the function of the ''Automations'' that were previously defined in Vacuumd’s configuration. You will find these new business rules in the etc/alarmd/drools-rules.d/ folder.

$OPENNMS_ETC/.drools-rules.d/
alarmd.drl

8.3. Configuring Alarms

Since Alarmd instantiates Alarms from Events, defining Alarms in OpenNMS Horizon entails defining an additional XML element of an Event indicating a problem or resolution in the Network. This additional element is the "alarm-data" element.

Any Event that is marked as "donotpersist" in the logmsg element’s "dest" attribute, will not be processed as an Alarm.
alarm-data Schema Definition (XSD)
<element name="alarm-data">
  <annotation>
    <documentation>This element is used for converting events into alarms.</documentation>
  </annotation>
  <complexType>
    <sequence>
      <element ref="this:update-field" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
    </sequence>
    <attribute name="reduction-key" type="string" use="required" />
    <attribute name="alarm-type" use="required" >
      <simpleType>
        <restriction base="int">
          <minInclusive value="1"/>
        </restriction>
      </simpleType>
    </attribute>
    <attribute name="clear-key" type="string" use="optional" />
    <attribute name="auto-clean" type="boolean" use="optional" default="false" />
    <attribute name="x733-alarm-type" type="this:x733-alarm-type" use="optional" />
    <attribute name="x733-probable-cause" type="int" use="optional" />
  </complexType>
</element>

<element name="update-field">
  <complexType>
    <attribute name="field-name" type="string" use="required" />
    <attribute name="update-on-reduction" type="boolean" use="optional" default="true" />
    <attribute name="value-expression" type="string" use="optional" default="" />
  </complexType>
</element>

<simpleType name="x733-alarm-type">
  <restriction base="string" >
    <pattern value="CommunicationsAlarm|ProcessingErrorAlarm|EnvironmentalAlarm|QualityOfServiceAlarm|EquipmentAlarm|IntegrityViolation|SecurityViolation|TimeDomainViolation|OperationalViolation|PhysicalViolation" />
  </restriction>
</simpleType>

NOTE See also: Anatomy of an Event

The reduction-key

The critical attribute when defining the alarm-data of an Event, is the reduction-key. This attribute can contain literal strings as well as references to properties (fields and parameters) of the Event. The purpose of the reduction-key is to uniquely identify the signature of a problem and, as such, is used to reduce (de-duplicate) Events so that only one problem is instantiated. Most commonly, the event’s identifier (UEI) is used as the left most (least significant) portion of the reduction-key, followed by other properties of the Event from least to most significant and, traditionally, separated with the literal ':'.

Example 1. Multi-part reduction-key
<event>
   <uei>uei.opennms.org/nodes/nodeDown</uei>
...
   <alarm-data reduction-key="%uei%:%dpname%:%nodeid%" alarm-type="1" auto-clean="false"/>
</event>
Example 2. Least Significant reduction-key Attribute
Decreasing the significance of the reduction-key is a way to aggregate, for example, all nodes down in to a single alarm. However, there are caveats:
<event>
  <uei>uei.opennms.org/nodes/nodeDown</uei>
  <alarm-data reduction-key="%uei%" alarm-type="1"/>
</event>

With this reduction-key, a single alarm would be instantiated for all nodes that were determined by the Poller to be down. There would be a single alarm with the count representing the number of nodes down. However, the UEI uei.opennms.org/nodes/nodeUp would not be a good ''pair wise'' reduction-key for resolving this alarm as it would take only a single ''node up'' to clear all nodes down tracked with this single alarm configuration.

The alarm-type attribute

The second most critical attribute is the alarm-type. There are currently three types of alarms: problem (1), resolution (2), and notification (3). The alarm-type attribute helps Alarmd with pair-wise resolution…​ the matching of resolution events to problem events.

The clear-key attribute

This attribute is used in the pair-wise correlation feature of Alarmd. When configuring a resolution Alarm, set this attribute to match the reduction-key of a the corresponding problem Alarm.

The auto-clean attribute

This attribute instructs Alarmd to only retain the most recent Event reduced into an alarm. For alarms that are super chatty, this is a way to reduce the size of the most recent Events in the database.

Do not use this feature with Alarms that have pair-wise correlation (matching problems with resolutions).
The update-field element

Use this element to override Alarmd’s default behavior for which some fields are updated during reduction. The Alarm fields that are currently allowed to be controlled this way are: .Bulleted * distpoller * ipaddr * mouseover * operinstruct * severity * descr * acktime * ackuser

With the new single alarm behavior in H23, if an Alarm transitions from an alarm-type 2 back to alarm-type 1 the Severity will be set to the most Event’s value.
Reduction (de-duplication) of Alarms

Alarmd is designed to reduce multiple occurrences of an Alarm into a single alarm.

Pairwise Correlation

Alarmd is also intrinsically designed to automatically match resolving events with an existing Alarm. Alarms with matching resolutions with problems (Ups with Downs), should be indicated with the alarm-type attribute. .Bulleted * alarm-type="1" (problem alarm) * alarm-type="2" (resolving alarm) * alarm-type="3" (notification alarm…​ alarm with no resolution such as SNMP Authentication Failures)

Instantiate new Alarms for existing cleared problem
Also new in H23, a global property setting that controls behavior of alarm reduction of currently cleared Alarms.

Create a properties file called alarmd.properties in the $OPENNMS_ETC/opennms.properties.d/ folder and add the following property set to true:

###### Alarmd Properties ######
#
# Enable this property to force Alarmd to create new alarms when an problem re-occurs and the
# existing Alarm is in a "Cleared" state.
#
# Default: false
#org.opennms.alarmd.newIfClearedAlarmExists = false
org.opennms.alarmd.newIfClearedAlarmExists = true

Now, with this property set, when a repeat incident occurs and the current state of the Alarm tracking the problem is "Cleared", instead of restating the current Alarm to it’s default severity and incrementing the counter, a new instance of the Alarm will be created. .New node down Alarm with existing cleared Alarm new after clear 3

What happens is that Alarmd will alter the existing Alarm’s reductionKey to be unique. Thus preventing it from ever again being reused for a reoccurring problem in the Network (the literal ":ID:" and the alarm ID is appended to the reductionKey).

Altered reductionKey

new after clear 4

Re-enable legacy dual Alarm state behavior
Now in H23, a global property setting can set to re-enable the legacy dual Alarm behavior.

Create a properties file called alarmd.properties in the $OPENNMS_ETC/opennms.properties.d/ folder and add the following property set to true:

###### Alarmd Properties ######
# Enable this property to have the traditional dual alarm handling of alarms state
# for Alarm pairwise correlation.
# Default: false
#org.opennms.alarmd.legacyAlarmState = false
org.opennms.alarmd.legacyAlarmState = true
Setting legacyAlarmState will nullify newIfClearedAlarmExists

8.4. Alarm Notes

OpenNMS Horizon creates an Alarm for issues in the network. Working with a few people in a team, it is helpful to share information about a current Alarm. Alarm Notes can be used to assign comments to a specific Alarm or a whole class of Alarms. . The figure Alarm Detail View shows the component to add these information in Memos to the Alarm.

Alarm Detail View

01 alarm notes

The Alarm Notes allows to add two types of notes on an existing Alarm or Alarm Class:

  • Sticky Memo: A user defined note for a specific instance of an Alarm. Deleting the Alarm will also delete the sticky memo.

  • Journal Memo: A user defined note for a whole class of alarms based on the resolved reduction key. The Journal Memo will be shown for all Alarms matching a specific reduction key. Deleting an Alarm doesn’t remove the Journal Memo, they can be removed by pressing the "Clear" button on an Alarm with the existing Journal Memo.

If an Alarm has a sticky and/or a Journal Memo it is indicated with two icons on the "Alarm list Summary" and "Alarm List Detail".

8.5. Alarm Sounds

Often users want an audible indication of a change in alarm state. The OpenNMS Horizon alarm list page has the optional ability to generate a sound either on each new alarm or (more annoyingly) on each change to an alarm event count on the page.

The figure Alarm Sounds View shows the alarm list page when alarms sounds are enabled.

Alarm Sounds View

01 alarm sound

By default the alarm sound feature is disabled. System Administrators must activate the sound feature and also set the default sound setting for all users. However users can modify the default sound setting for the duration of their logged-in session using a drop down menu with the following options:

  • Sound off: no sounds generated by the page.

  • Sound on new alarm: sounds generated for every new alarm on the page.

  • Sound on new alarm count: sounds generated for every increase in alarm event count for alarms on the page.

8.6. Flashing Unacknowledged Alarms

By default OpenNMS Horizon displays the alarm list page with acknowledged and unacknowledged alarms listed in separate search tabs. In a number of operational environments it is useful to see all of the alarms on the same page with unacknowledged alarms flashing to indicate that they haven’t yet been noticed by one of the team. This allows everyone to see at a glance the real time status of all alarms and which alarms still need attention.

The figure Alarm Sounds View also shows the alarm list page when flashing unacknowledged alarms are enabled. Alarms which are unacknowledged flash steadily. Alarms which have been acknowledged do not flash and also have a small tick beside the selection check box. All alarms can be selected to be escalated, cleared, acknowledged and unacknowledged.

8.7. Configuring Alarm Sounds and Flashing

By default OpenNMS Horizon does not enable alarm sounds or flashing alarms. The default settings are included in opennms.properties. However rather than editing the default opennms.properties file, the system administrator should enable these features by creating a new file in opennms.properties.d and applying the following settings;

${OPENNMS_HOME}/etc/opennms.properties.d/alarm.listpage.properties

Configuration properties related to Alarm sound and flashing visualization
# ###### Alarm List Page Options ######
# Several options are available to change the default behaviour of the Alarm List Page.
# <opennms url>/opennms/alarm/list.htm
#
# The alarm list page has the ability to generate a sound either on each new alarm
# or (more annoyingly) on each change to an alarm event count on the page.
#
# Turn on the sound feature. Set true and Alarm List Pages can generate sounds in the web browser.
opennms.alarmlist.sound.enable=true
#
# Set the default setting for how the Alarm List Pages generates sounds. The default setting can be
# modified by users for the duration of their logged-in session using a drop down menu .
#    off = no sounds generated by the page.
#    newalarm = sounds generated for every new alarm in the page
#    newalarmcount = sounds generated for every increase in alarm event count for alarms on the page
#
opennms.alarmlist.sound.status=off

# By default the alarm list page displays acknowledged and unacknowledged alarms in separate search tabs
# Some users have asked to be able to see both on the same page. This option allows the alarm list page
# to display acknowledged and unacknowledged alarms on the same list but unacknowledged alarms
# flash until they are acknowledged.
#
opennms.alarmlist.unackflash=true

The sound played is determined by the contents of the following file ${OPENNMS_HOME}/jetty-webapps/opennms/sounds/alert.wav

If you want to change the sound, create a new wav file with your desired sound, name it alert.wav and replace the default file in the same directory.

9. Notifications

9.1. Introduction

OpenNMS Horizon uses notifications to make users aware of an event. Common notification methods are email and paging, but notification mechanisms also exist for:

  • Arbitrary HTTP GET and POST operations

  • Arbitrary external commands

  • Asterisk call origination

  • IRCcat Internet Relay Chat bot

  • SNMP Traps

  • Slack, Mattermost, and other API-compatible team chat platforms

  • Twitter, GNU Social, and other API-compatible microblog services

  • User-provided scripts in any JSR-223 compatible language

  • XMPP

The notification daemon Notifd creates and sends notifications according to configured rules when selected events occur in OpenNMS Horizon.

9.2. Getting Started

The status of notifications is indicated by an icon at the top right of the web UI’s navigation bar. OpenNMS Horizon installs with notifications globally disabled by default.

9.2.1. Enabling Notifications

To enable notifications in OpenNMS Horizon, log in to the web UI as a user with administrator privileges. Hover over the user icon and click the Configure OpenNMS link. The controls for global notification status appear in the top-level configuration menu as Notification Status. Click the On radio button and then the Update button. Notifications are now globally enabled.

The web workflow above is functionally equivalent to editing the notifd-configuration.xml file and setting status="on" in the top-level notifd-configuration element. This configuration file change is picked up on the fly with no need to restart or send an event.

9.2.2. Configuring Destination Paths

To configure notification destination paths in OpenNMS Horizon, navigate to Configure OpenNMS and, in the Event Management section, choose Configure Notifications. In the resulting dialog choose Configure Destination Paths.

The destination paths configuration is stored in the destinationPaths.xml file. Changes to this file are picked up on the fly with no need to restart or send an event.

9.2.3. Configuring Event Notifications

To configure notifications for individual events in OpenNMS Horizon, navigate to Configure OpenNMS and, in the Event Management section, choose _Configure Notifications. Then choose Configure Event Notifications.

The event notification configuration is stored in the notifications.xml file. Changes to this file are picked up on the fly with no need to restart or send an event.
By default, OpenNMS executes the destination path of all notifications matching the event’s uei. You can configure OpenNMS to only execute the destination path of the first matching notification by editing the notifd-configuration.xml file and setting match-all="false" in the top-level notifd-configuration element. This configuration file change is picked up on the fly with no need to restart or send an event.

9.3. Concepts

Notifications are how OpenNMS Horizon informs users about an event that happened in the network, without the users having to log in and look at the UI. The core concepts required to understand notifications are:

  • Events and UEIs

  • Users, Groups, and On-Call Roles

  • Duty Schedules

  • Destination Paths

  • Notification Commands

These concepts fit together to form an Event Notification Definition. Also related, but presently only loosely coupled to notifications, are Alarms and Acknowledgments.

9.3.1. Events and UEIs

As discussed in the chapter on Events, events are central to the operation of OpenNMS Horizon. Almost everything that happens in the system is the result of, or the cause of, one or more events; Every notification is triggered by exactly one event. A good understanding of events is therefore essential to a working knowledge of notifications.

Every event has a UEI (Uniform Event Identifier), a string uniquely identifying the event’s type. UEIs are typically formatted in the style of a URI, but the only requirement is that they start with the string uei.. Most notifications are triggered by an exact UEI match (though they may also be triggered with partial UEI matches using regular expression syntax).

9.3.2. Users, Groups, and On-Call Roles

Users are entities with login accounts in the OpenNMS Horizon system. Ideally each user corresponds to a person. They are used to control access to the web UI, but also carry contact information (e-mail addresses, phone numbers, etc.) for the people they represent. A user may receive a notification either individually or as part of a Group or On-Call Role. Each user has several technology-specific contact fields, which must be filled if the user is to receive notifications by the associated method.

Groups are lists of users. In large systems with many users it is helpful to organize them into Groups. A group may receive a notification, which is often a more convenient way to operate than on individual user. Groups allow to assign a set of users to On Call Roles to build more complex notification workflows.

How to create or modify membership of Users in a Group
  1. Login as a User with administrative permissions

  2. Choose Configure OpenNMS from the user specific main navigation which is named as your login user name

  3. Choose Configure Users, Groups and On-Call roles and select Configure Groups

  4. Create a new Group with Add new group or modify an existing Group by clicking the Modify icon next to the Group

  5. Select User from Available Users and use the >> to add them to the Currently in Group or select the users in the Currently in Group list and use << to remove them from the list.

  6. Click Finish to persist and apply the changes

The order of the Users in the group is relevant and is used as the order for Notifications when this group is used as Target in a Destination Path.
How to delete a Group
  1. Login as a User with administrative permissions

  2. Choose Configure OpenNMS from the user specific main navigation which is named as your login user name

  3. Choose Configure Users, Groups and On-Call roles and select Configure Groups

  4. Use the trash bin icon next to the Group to delete

  5. Confirm delete request with OK

On-Call Roles are an overlay on top of groups, designed to enable OpenNMS Horizon to target the appropriate user or users according to a calendar configuration. A common use case is to have System Engineers in On-Call rotations with a given schedule. The On-Call Roles allow to assign a predefined Duty Schedule to an existing Group with Users. For each On-Call Role a User is assigned as a Supervisor to be responsible for the group of people in this On-Call Role.

How to assign a Group to an On-Call Role
  1. Login as a User with administrative permissions

  2. Choose Configure OpenNMS from the user specific main navigation which is named as your login user name

  3. Choose Configure Users, Groups and On-Call roles and select Configure On-Call Roles

  4. Use Add New On-Call Role and set a Name for this On-Call Role, assign an existing Group and give a meaningful description

  5. Click Save to persist

  6. Define a Duty Schedule in the calendar for the given date by click on the Plus (+) icon of the day and provide a notification time for a specific User from the associated Group

  7. Click Save to persist the Schedule

  8. Click Done to apply the changes

9.3.3. Duty Schedules

Every User and Group may have a Duty Schedule, which specifies that user’s (or group’s) weekly schedule for receiving notifications. If a notification should be delivered to an individual user, but that user is not on duty at the time, the notification will never be delivered to that user. In the case of notifications targeting a user via a group, the logic differs slightly. If the group is on duty at the time the notification is created, then all users who are also on duty will be notified. If the group is on duty, but no member user is currently on duty, then the notification will be queued and sent to the next user who comes on duty. If the group is off duty at the time the notification is created, then the notification will never be sent.

9.3.4. Destination Paths

A Destination Path is a named, reusable set of rules for sending notifications. Every destination path has an initial step and zero or more escalation steps.

Each step in a destination path has an associated delay which defaults to zero seconds. The initial step’s delay is called the initial delay, while an escalation step’s delay is simply called its delay.

Each step has one or more targets. A target may be a user, a group, an on-call role, or a one-off e-mail address.

While it may be tempting to use one-off e-mail addresses any time an individual user is to be targeted, it’s a good idea to reserve one-off e-mail addresses for special cases. If a user changes her e-mail address, for instance, you’ll need to update in every destination path where it appears. The use of one-off e-mail addresses is meant for situations where a vendor or other external entity is assisting with troubleshooting in the short term.

When a step targets one or more groups, a delay may also be specified for each group. The default is zero seconds, in which case all group members are notified simultaneously. If a longer delay is set, the group members will be notified in alphabetical order of their usernames.

Avoid using the same name for a group and a user. The destination path configuration does not distinguish between users and groups at the step level, so the behavior is undefined if you have both a user and a group named admin. It is for this reason that the default administrators group is called Admin (with a capital A) — case matters.

Within a step, each target is associated with one or more notification commands. If multiple commands are selected, they will execute simultaneously.

Each step also has an auto-notify switch, which may be set to off, on, or auto. This switch specifies the logic used when deciding whether or not to send a notice for an auto-acknowledged notification to a target that was not on duty at the time the notification was first created. If off, notices will never be sent to such a target; if on, they will always be sent; if auto, the system employs heuristics aimed at "doing the right thing".

9.3.5. Notification Commands

A Notification Command is a named, reusable execution profile for a Java class or external program command used to convey notices to targets. The following notification commands are included in the default configuration:

callHomePhone, callMobilePhone, and callWorkPhone

Ring one of the phone numbers configured in the user’s contact information. All three are implemented using the in-process Asterisk notification strategy, and differ only in which contact field is used.

ircCat

Conveys a notice to an instance of the IRCcat Internet Relay Chat bot. Implemented by the in-process IRCcat notification strategy.

javaEmail and javaPagerEmail

By far the most commonly used commands, these deliver a notice to a user’s email or pagerEmail contact field value. By configuring a user’s pagerEmail contact field value to target an email-to-SMS gateway, SMS notifications are trivially easy to configure. Both are implemented using the in-process JavaMail notification strategy.

microblogDM, microblogReply, and microblogUpdate

Sends a notice to a user as a direct message, at a user via an at-reply, or to everybody as an update via a microblog service with a Twitter v1-compatible API. Each command is implemented with a separate, in-process notification strategy.

numericPage and textPage

Sends a notice to a user’s numeric or alphanumeric pager. Implemented as an external command using the qpage utility.

xmppGroupMessage and xmppMessage

Sends a message to an XMPP group or user. Implemented with the in-process XMPP notification strategy.

Notification commands are customizable and extensible by editing the notificationCommands.xml file.

Use external binary notification commands sparingly to avoid fork-bombing your OpenNMS Horizon system. Originally, all notification commands were external. Today only the numericPage and textPage commands use external programs to do their work.

9.4. Bonus Notification Methods

A handful of newer notification methods are included in OpenNMS Horizon but currently require manual steps to activate.

9.4.1. Mattermost

If your organization uses the Mattermost team communications platform, you can configure OpenNMS Horizon to send notices to any Mattermost channel via an incoming webhook. You must configure an incoming webhook in your Mattermost team and do a bit of manual configuration to your OpenNMS Horizon instance.

First, add the following bit of XML to the notificationCommands.xml configuration file (no customization should be needed):

<command binary="false">
  <name>mattermost</name>
  <execute>org.opennms.netmgt.notifd.MattermostNotificationStrategy</execute>
  <comment>class for sending messages to a Mattermost team channel for notifications</comment>
  <argument streamed="false">
    <switch>-subject</switch>
  </argument>
  <argument streamed="false">
    <switch>-tm</switch>
  </argument>
</command>

Then create a new file called mattermost.properties in the opennms.properties.d directory with the following contents (customizing values as appropriate):

org.opennms.netmgt.notifd.mattermost.webhookURL=https://mattermost.example.com/hooks/bf980352b5f7232efe721dbf0626bee1

Restart OpenNMS so that the mattermost.properties file will be loaded. Your new mattermost notification command is now available for use in a destination path.

Additional Options

The following table lists optional properties that you may use in mattermost.properties to customize your Mattermost notifications.

To improve the layout, the property names have been shortened to their final component; you must prepend org.opennms.netmgt.notifd.mattermost. when using them.
Table 93. Additional available parameters for the Mattermost notification strategy
Parameter Description Required Default value Example

channel

Specify a channel or private group other than the one targeted by the webhook

optional

Webhook default

NetOps

username

The username to associate with the notification posts

optional

None

OpenNMS_Bot

iconEmoji

An emoji sequence to use as the icon for the notification posts

optional

No icon

:metal:

iconURL

The URL of an image to use as the icon for the notification posts

optional

No icon

https://example.org/assets/icon.png

useSystemProxy

Should the system wide proxy settings be used? The system proxy settings can be configured in opennms.conf

optional

true

true

Some of the optional configuration parameters are incompatible with some versions of Mattermost. For instance, the channel option is known not to work with Mattermost 3.7.0.

For more information on incoming webhooks in Mattermost, see Mattermost Integration Guide.

9.4.2. Slack Notifications

If your organization uses the Slack team communications platform, you can configure OpenNMS Horizon to send notices to any Slack channel via an incoming webhook. You must configure an incoming webhook in your Slack team and do a bit of manual configuration to your OpenNMS Horizon instance.

First, add the following bit of XML to the notificationCommands.xml configuration file (no customization should be needed):

<command binary="false">
  <name>slack</name>
  <execute>org.opennms.netmgt.notifd.SlackNotificationStrategy</execute>
  <comment>class for sending messages to a Slack team channel for notifications</comment>
  <argument streamed="false">
    <switch>-subject</switch>
  </argument>
  <argument streamed="false">
    <switch>-tm</switch>
  </argument>
</command>

Then create a new file called slack.properties in the opennms.properties.d directory with the following contents (customizing values as appropriate):

org.opennms.netmgt.notifd.slack.webhookURL=https://hooks.slack.com/services/AEJ7IIYAI/XOOTH3EOD/c3fc4a662c8e07fe072aeeec

Restart OpenNMS so that the slack.properties file will be loaded. Your new slack notification command is now available for use in a destination path.

Additional Options

The following table lists optional properties that you may use in slack.properties to customize your Slack notifications.

To improve the layout, the property names have been shortened to their final component; you must prepend org.opennms.netmgt.notifd.slack. when using them.
Table 94. Additional parameters for the Slack notification strategy
Parameter Description Required Default value Example

channel

Specify a channel or private group other than the one targeted by the webhook

optional

Webhook default

NetOps

username

The username to associate with the notification posts

optional

None

OpenNMS_Bot

iconEmoji

An emoji sequence to use as the icon for the notification posts

optional

No icon

:metal:

iconURL

The URL of an image to use as the icon for the notification posts

optional

No icon

https://example.org/assets/icon.png

useSystemProxy

Should the system wide proxy settings be used? The system proxy settings can be configured in opennms.conf

optional

true

true

For more information on incoming webhooks in Slack, see Slack API.

10. Provisioning

10.1. Introduction

The introduction of OpenNMS version 1.8 empowers enterprises and services providers like never before with a new service daemon for maintaining the managed entity inventory in OpenNMS. This new daemon, Provisiond, unifies all previous entity control mechanisms available in 1.6 (Capsd and the Importer), into a new and improved, massively parallel, policy based provisioning system. System integrators should note, Provisiond comes complete with a RESTFul Web Service API for easy integration with external systems such as CRM or external inventory systems as well as an adapter API for interfacing with other management systems such as configuration management.

OpenNMS 1.0, introduced almost a decade ago now, provided a capabilities scanning daemon, Capsd, as the mechanism for provisioning managed entities. Capsd, deprecated with the release of 1.8.0, provided a rich automatic provisioning mechanism that simply required an IP address to seed its algorithm for creating and maintaining the managed entities (nodes, interfaces, and IP based services). Version 1.2 added and XML-RPC API as a more controlled (directed) strategy for provisioning services that was mainly used by non telco based service providers (i.e. managed hosting companies). Version 1.6 followed this up with yet another and more advanced mechanism called the Importer service daemon. The Importer provided large service providers with the ability to strictly control the OpenNMS entity provisioning with an XML based API for completely defining and controlling the entities where no discovery and service scanning scanning was feasible.

The Importer service improved OpenNMS' scalability for maintaining managed entity databases by an order of magnitude. This daemon, while very simple in concept and yet extremely powerful and flexible provisioning improvement, has blazed the trail for Provisiond. The Importer service has been in production for 3 years in service provider networks maintaining entity counts of more than 50,000 node level entities on a single instances of OpenNMS. It is a rock solid provisioning tool.

Provisiond begins a new era of managed entity provisioning in OpenNMS.

10.2. Concepts

Provisioning is a term that is familiar to service providers (a.k.a. operators, a.k.a. telephone companies) and OSS systems but not so much in the non OSS enterprises.

Provisiond receives "requests" for adding managed entities via 2 basic mechanisms, the OpenNMS Horizon traditional "New Suspect" event, typically via the Discovery daemon, and the import requisition (XML definition of node entities) typically via the Provisioning Groups UI. If you are familiar with all previous releases of OpenNMS, you will recognize the New Suspect Event based Discovery to be what was previously the Capsd component of the auto discovery behavior. You will also recognize the import requisition to be of the Model Importer component of OpenNMS. Provisiond now unifies these two separate components into a massively parallel advanced policy based provisioning service.

10.2.1. Terminology

The following terms are used with respect to the OpenNMS Horizon provisioning system and are essential for understanding the material presented in this guide.

Entity

Entities are managed objects in OpenNMS Horizon such as Nodes, IP interfaces, SNMP Interfaces, and Services.

Foreign Source and Foreign ID

The Importer service from 1.6 introduced the idea of foreign sources and foreign IDs. The Foreign Source uniquely identifies a provisioning source and is still a basic attribute of importing node entities into OpenNMS Horizon. The concept is to provide an external (foreign) system with a way to uniquely identify itself and any node entities that it is requesting (via a requisition) to be provisioned into OpenNMS Horizon.

The Foreign ID is the unique node ID maintained in foreign system and the foreign source uniquely identifies the external system in OpenNMS Horizon.

OpenNMS Horizon uses the combination of the foreign source and foreign ID become the unique foreign key when synchronizing the set of nodes from each source with the nodes in the OpenNMS Horizon DB. This way the foreign system doesn’t have to keep track of the OpenNMS Horizon node IDs that are assigned when a node is first created. This is how Provisiond can decided if a node entity from an import requisition is new, has been changed, or needs to be deleted.

Foreign Source Definition

Additionally, the foreign source has been extended to also contain specifications for how entities should be discovered and managed on the nodes from each foreign source. The name of the foreign source has become pervasive within the provisioning system and is used to simply some of the complexities by weaving this name into:

  • the name of the provisioning group in the Web-UI

  • the name of the file containing the persisted requisition (as well as the pending requisition if it is in this state)

  • the foreign-source attribute value inside the requisition (obviously, but, this is pointed out to indicate that the file name doesn’t necessarily have to equal the value of this attribute but is highly recommended as an OpenNMS Horizon best practice)

  • the building attribute of the node defined in the requisition (this value is called “site” in the Web-UI and is assigned to the building column of the node’s asset record by Provisiond and is the default value used in the Site Status View feature)

Import Requisition

Import requisition is the terminology OpenNMS Horizon uses to represent the set of nodes, specified in XML, to be provisioned from a foreign source into OpenNMS Horizon. The requisition schema (XSD) can be found at the following location. http://xmlns.opennms.org/xsd/config/model-import

Auto Discovery

Auto discovery is the term used by OpenNMS Horizon to characterize the automatic provisioning of nodes entities. Currently, OpenNMS Horizon uses an ICMP ping sweep to find IP address on the network. For the IPs that respond and that are not currently in the DB, OpenNMS Horizon generates a new suspect event. When this event is received by Provisiond, it creates a node and it begins a node scan based on the default foreign source definition.

Directed Discovery

Provisiond takes over for the Model Importer found in version 1.6 which implemented a unique, first of its kind, controlled mechanism for specifying managed entities directly into OpenNMS Horizon from one or more data sources. These data sources often were in the form of an in-housed developed inventory or stand-alone provisioning system or even a set of element management systems. Using this mechanism, OpenNMS Horizon is directed to add, update, or delete a node entity exactly as defined by the external source. No discovery process is used for finding more interfaces or services.

Enhanced Directed Discovery

Directed discovery is enhanced with the capability to scan nodes that have been directed nodes for entities (interfaces.

Policy Based Discovery

The phrase, Policy based Directed Discovery, is a term that represents the latest step in OpenNMS Horizon provisioning evolution and best describes the new provisioning architecture now in OpenNMS Horizon for maintaining its inventory of managed entities. This term describes the control that is given over the Provisioning system to OpenNMS Horizon users for managing the behavior of the NMS with respect to the new entities that are being discovered. Current behaviors include persistence, data collection, service monitoring, and categorization policies.

10.2.2. Addressing Scalability

The explosive growth and density of the IT systems being deployed today to support not traditional IP services is impacting management systems like never before and is demanding from them tremendous amounts of scalability. The scalability of a management system is defined by its capacity for maintaining large numbers of managing entities coupled with its efficiency of managing the entities.

Today, It is not uncommon for OpenNMS Horizon deployments to find node entities with tens of thousands of physical interfaces being reported by SNMP agents due to virtualization (virtual hosts, interfaces, as well as networks). An NMS must be capable of using the full capacity every resource of its computing platform (hardware and OS) as effectively as possible in order to manage these environments. The days of writing scripts or single threaded applications will just no longer be able to do the work required an NMS when dealing with the scalability challenges facing systems and systems administrators working in this domain.

Parallelization and Non-Blocking I/O

Squeezing out every ounce of power from a management system’s platform (hardware and OS) is absolutely required to complete all the work of a fully functional NMS such as OpenNMS Horizon. Fortunately, the hardware and CPU architecture of a modern computing platform provides multiple CPUs with multiple cores having instruction sets that include support for atomic operations. While these very powerful resources are being provided by commodity systems, it makes the complexity of developing applications to use them vs. not using them, orders of magnitude more complex. However, because of scalability demands of our complex IT environments, multi-threaded NMS applications are now essential and this has fully exposed the complex issues of concurrency in software development.

OpenNMS Horizon has stepped up to this challenge with its new concurrency strategy. This strategy is based on a technique that combines the efficiency of parallel (asynchronous) operations (traditionally used by most effectively by single threaded applications) with the power of a fully current, non-blocking, multi-threaded design. The non-blocking component of this new concurrency strategy added greater complexity but OpenNMS Horizon gained orders of magnitude in increased scalability.

Java Runtimes, based on the Sun JVM, have provided implementations for processor based atomic operations and is the basis for OpenNMS Horizon’ non-blocking concurrency algorithms.
Provisioning Policies

Just because you can, doesn’t mean you should! Because the massively parallel operations being created for Provisiond allows tremendous numbers of nodes, interfaces, and services to be very rapidly discovered and persisted, doesn’t mean it should. A policy API was created for Provisiond that allows implementations to be developed that can be applied to control the behavior of Provisiond. The 1.8 release includes a set of flexible provisioning policies that control the persistence of entities and their attributes constrain monitoring behavior.

When nodes are imported or re-scanned, there is, potentially, a set of zero or more provisioning policies that are applied. The policies are defined in the foreign source’s definition. The policies for an auto-discovered node or nodes from provisioning groups that don’t have a foreign source definition, are the policies defined in the default foreign source definition.

The Default Foreign Source Definition

Contained in the libraries of the Provisioning service is the "template" or default foreign source. The template stored in the library is used until the OpenNMS Horizon admin user alters the default from the Provisioning Groups WebUI. Upon edit, this template is exported to the OpenNMS Horizon etc/ directory with the file name: default-foreign-source.xml.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
<foreign-source date-stamp="2009-10-16T18:04:12.844-05:00"
                name="default"
                xmlns="http://xmlns.opennms.org/[http://xmlns.opennms.org/xsd/config/foreign-source">
    <scan-interval>1d</scan-interval>
    <detectors>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.datagram.DnsDetector" name="DNS"/>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.simple.FtpDetector" name="FTP"/>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.simple.HttpDetector" name="HTTP"/>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.simple.HttpsDetector" name="HTTPS"/>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.icmp.IcmpDetector" name="ICMP"/>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.simple.ImapDetector" name="IMAP"/>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.simple.LdapDetector" name="LDAP"/>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.simple.NrpeDetector" name="NRPE"/>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.simple.Pop3Detector" name="POP3"/>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.radius.RadiusAuthDetector" name="Radius"/>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.simple.SmtpDetector" name="SMTP"/>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.snmp.SnmpDetector" name="SNMP"/>
      <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.ssh.SshDetector" name="SSH"/>
  </detectors>
  <policies/>
</foreign-source>
Automatic Rescanning

The default foreign source defines a scan-interval of 1d, which will cause all nodes in the requisition to be scanned daily. You may set the scan interval using any combination of the following signifiers:

  • w: Weeks

  • d: Days

  • h: Hours

  • m: Minutes

  • s: Seconds

  • ms: Milliseconds

For example, to rescan every 6 days and 53 minutes, you would set the scan-interval to 6d 53m.

Don’t forget, for the new scan interval to take effect, you will need to import the requisition one more time so that the foreign source becomes active.

Disabling Rescan

For a large number of devices, you may want to set the scan-interval to 0 to disable automatic rescan altogether. OpenNMS Horizon will not attempt to rescan the nodes in the requisition unless you trigger a manual (forced) rescan through the web UI or Provisioning ReST API.

10.3. Getting Started

An NMS is of no use until it is setup for monitoring and entities are added to the system. OpenNMS Horizon installs with a base configuration with a configuration that is sufficient get service level monitoring and performance management quickly up and running. As soon as managed entities are provisioned, the base configuration will automatically begin monitoring and reporting.

Generally speaking, there are two methods of provisioning in OpenNMS Horizon: Auto Discovery and Directed Discovery. We’ll start with Auto Discovery, but first, we should quickly review the configuration of SNMP so that newly discovered devices can be immediately scanned for entities as well as have reporting and thresholding available.

10.3.1. Provisioning the SNMP Configuration

OpenNMS Horizon requires SNMP configuration to be properly setup for your network in order to properly understand Network and Node topology as well as to automatically enable performance data collection. Network topology is updated as nodes (a.k.a. devices or hosts) are provisioned. Navigate to the Admin/Configure SNMP Community Names by IP address as shown below.

Configuring SNMP community names

00029

Provisiond includes an option to add community information in the Single Node provisioning interface. This, is equivalent of entering a single IP address in the screen with the convenience of setting the community string at the same time a node is provisioned. See the Quick Node Add feature below for more details about this capability.

This screen sets up SNMP within OpenNMS Horizon for agents listening on IP addresses 10.1.1.1 through 10.254.254.254. These settings are optimized into the snmp-configuration.xml file. Optimization means that the minimal configuration possible will be written. Any IP addresses already configured that are eclipsed by this range will be removed. Here is the resulting configuration.

Sample snmp-config.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<snmp-config
xmlns="http://xmlns.opennms.org/xsd/config/snmp[http://xmlns.opennms.org/xsd/config/snmp]"
port="161" retry="3" timeout="800" read-community="public"

version="v1" max-vars-per-pdu="10">

<definition retry="1" timeout="2000"

read-community="public" version="v2c">

<specific>10.12.23.32</specific>

</definition>

</snmp-config>

However, If an IP address is then configured that is within the range, the range will be split into two separate ranges and a specific entry will be added. For example, if a configuration was added through the same UI for the IP: 10.12.23.32 having the community name public, then the resulting configuration will be:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<snmp-config xmlns="http://xmlns.opennms.org/xsd/config/snmp"
             port="161"
             retry="3"
             timeout="800"
             read-community="public"
             version="v1"
             max-vars-per-pdu="10">

    <definition retry="1" timeout="2000" read-community="YrusoNoz" version="v2c">
        <range begin="10.1.1.1" end="10.12.23.31"/>
        <range begin="10.12.23.33" end="10.254.254.254"/>
    </definition>

    <definition retry="1" timeout="2000" read-community="public" version="v2c">
        <specific>10.12.23.32</specific>
    </definition>
</snmp-config>
the bold IP addresses show where the range was split and the specific with community name "public" was added.

Now, with SNMP configuration provisioned for our 10 networks, we are ready to begin adding nodes. Our first example will be to automatically discover and add all managed entities (nodes, IP interfaces, SNMP Interfaces, and Monitored IP based Services). We will then give an example of how to be more directed and deliberate about your discovery by using Provisioning Groups.

Automatically discovered entities are analyzed, persisted to the relational data store, and then managed based on the policies defined in the default foreign source definition. This is very similar to the way that entities were previously handled by the (now obsolete) Capsd daemon but with finer grained sense of control.

10.3.2. Automatic Discovery

Currently in OpenNMS Horizon, the ICMP is used to automatically provision node entities into OpenNMS Horizon. This functionality has been in OpenNMS since is 1.0 release, however, in 1.8, a few of the use cases have been updated with Provisiond’s replacement of Capsd.

Separation of Concerns

Version 1.8 Provisiond separates what was called Capsd scanning in to 3 distinct phases: entity scanning, service detection, and node merging. These phases are now managed separately by Provisiond. Immediately following the import of a node entity, tasks are created for scanning a node to discover the node entity’s interfaces (SNMP and IP). As interfaces are found, they are persisted and tasks are scheduled for service detection of each IP interface.

For auto discovered nodes, a node merging phase is scheduled; Nodes that have been directly provisioned will not be included in the node merging process. Merging will only occur when 2 automatically discovered nodes appear to be the same node.

the use case and redesign of node merging is still an outstanding issue with the 1.8.0 release

10.3.3. Enhanced Directed Discovery

This new form of provisioning first appears in OpenNMS with version 1.8 and the new Provisiond service. It combines the benefits of the Importer’s strictly controlled methodology of directed provisioning (from version 1.6) with OpenNMS’ robustly flexible auto discovery. Enhanced Directed discovery begins with an enhanced version of the same import requisition used in directed provisioning and completes with a policy influenced persistence phase that sorts though the details of all the entities and services found during the entity and service scanning phase.

If you are planning to use this form of provisioning, it important to understand the conceptual details of how Provisiond manages entities it is directed to provision. This knowledge will enable administrators and systems integrators to better plan, implement, and resolve any issues involved with this provisioning strategy.

Understanding the Process

There are 3 phases involved with directing entities to be discovered: import, node scan, and service scan. The import phase also has sub phases: marshal, audit, limited SNMP scan, and re-parent.

Marshal and Audit Phases

It is important to understand that the nodes requisitioned from each foreign source are managed as a complete set. Nodes defined in a requisition from the foreign source CRM and CMDB, for example, will be managed separately from each other even if they should contain exactly the same node definitions. To OpenNMS Horizon, these are individual entities and they are managed as a set.

Requisitions are referenced via a URL. Currently, the URL can be specified as one of the following protocols: FILE, HTTP, HTTPS, and DNS. Each protocol has a protocol handler that is used to stream the XML from a foreign source, i.e. http://inv.corp.org/import.cgi?customer=acme or file:/opt/opennms/etc/imports/acme.xml. The DNS protocol is a special handler developed for Provisioning sets of nodes as a foreign-source from a corporate DNS server. See DNS Protocol Handler for details.

Upon the import request (either on schedule or on demand via an Event) the requisition is marshaled into Java objects for processing. The nodes defined in the requisition represent what OpenNMS Horizon should have as the current set of managed entities from that foreign source. The audit phase determines for each node defined (or not defined) in the requisition which are to be processed as an Add, Update, or Delete operation during the Import Phase. This determination is made by comparing the set foreign IDs of each node in the requisition set with the set of foreign IDs of currently managed entities in OpenNMS Horizon.

The intersection of the IDs from each set will become the Update operations, the extra set of foreign IDs that are in the requisition become the Add operations, and the extra set of foreign IDs from the managed entities become the Delete operations. This implies that the foreign IDs from each foreign source must be unique.

Naturally, the first time an import request is processed from a foreign source there will be zero (0) node entities from the set of nodes currently being managed and each node defined in the requisition will become an Add Operation. If a requisition is processed with zero (0) node definitions, all the currently managed nodes from that foreign source will become Delete operations (all the nodes, interfaces, outages, alarms, etc. will be removed from OpenNMS Horizon).

When nodes are provisioned using the Provisioning Groups Web-UI, the requisitions are stored on the local file system and the file protocol handler is used to reference the requisition. Each Provisioning Group is a separate foreign source and unique foreign IDs are generated by the Web-UI. An MSP might use Provisioning Groups to define the set of nodes to be managed by customer name where each customer’s set of nodes are maintained in a separate Provisioning Group.

Import Phase

The import phase begins when Provisiond receives a request to import a requisition from a URL. The first step in this phase is to load the requisition and marshal all the node entities defined in the requisition into Java objects.

If any syntactical or XML structural problems occur in the requisition, the entire import is abandoned and no import operations are completed.

Once the requisition is marshaled, the requisition nodes are audited against the persisted node entities. The set of requisitioned nodes are compared with a subset of persisted nodes and this subset is generated from a database query using the foreign source defined in the requisition. The audit generates one of three operations for each requisition node: insert, update, delete based on each requisitioned node’s foreign ID. Delete operations are created for any nodes that are not in the requisition but are in the DB subset, update operations are created for requisition nodes that match a persisted node from the subset (the intersection), and insert operations are created from the remaining requisition nodes (nodes in the requisition that are not in the DB subset).

If a requisition node has an interface defined as the Primary SNMP interface, then during the update and insert operations the node will be scanned for minimal SNMP attribute information. This scan find the required node and SNMP interface details required for complete SNMP support of the node and only the IP interfaces defined in the requisition.

this not the same as Provisiond SNMP discovery scan phases: node scan and interface scan.
Node Scan Phase

Where directed discovery leaves off and enhanced directed discovery begins is that after all the operations have completed, directed discovery is finished and enhanced directed discovery takes off. The requisitioned nodes are scheduled for node scans where details about the node are discovered and interfaces that were not directly provisioned are also discovered. All physical (SNMP) and logical (IP) interfaces are discovered and persisted based on any Provisioning Policies that may have been defined for the foreign source associated with the import requisition.

Service Scan (detection) Phase

Additionally, the new Provisiond enhanced directed discovery mechanism follows interface discovery with service detection on each IP interface entity. This is very similar to the Capsd plugin scanning found in all former releases of OpenNMS except that the foreign source definition is used to define what services should be detected on these interfaces found for nodes in the import requisition.

10.4. Import Handlers

The new Provisioning service in OpenNMS Horizon is continuously improving and adapting to the needs of the community.

One of the most recent enhancements to the system is built upon the very flexible and extensible API of referencing an import requisition’s location via a URL. Most commonly, these URLs are files on the file system (i.e. file:/opt/opennms/etc/imports/<my-provisioning-group.xml>) as requisitions created by the Provisioning Groups UI. However, these same requisitions for adding, updating, and deleting nodes (based on the original model importer) can also come from URLs. For example a requisition can be retrieving the using HTTP protocol: http://myinventory.server.org/nodes.cgi

In addition to the standard protocols supported by Java, we provide a series of custom URL handlers to help retrieve requisitions from external sources.

10.4.1. Generic Handler

The generic handler is made available using URLs of the form: requisition://type?param=1;param=2

Using these URLs various type handlers can be invoked, both locally and via a Minion.

In addition to the type specific parameters, the following parameters are supported:

Table 95. General parameters
Parameter Description Required Default value

location

The name of location at which the handler should be run

optional

Default

ttl

The maximum number of miliseconds to wait for the handler when ran remotely

optional

20000

See the relevant sections bellow for additional details on the support types.

The provision:show-import command available via the Karaf Shell can be used to show the results of an import (without persisting or triggering the import):

provision:show-import -l MINION http url=http://127.0.0.1:8000/req.xml

10.4.2. File Handler

Examples:

Simple
file:///path/to/my/requisition.xml
Using the generic handler
requisition://file?path=/path/to/my/requisition.xml;location=MINION

10.4.3. HTTP Handler

Examples:

Simple
http://myinventory.server.org/nodes.cgi
Using the generic handler
requisition://http?url=http%3A%2F%2Fmyinventory.server.org%2Fnodes.cgi
When using the generic handler, the URL should be "URL encoded".

10.4.4. DNS Handler

The DNS handler requests a Zone Transfer (AXFR) request from a DNS server. The A records are recorded and used to build an import requisition. This is handy for organizations that use DNS (possibly coupled with an IP management tool) as the data base of record for nodes in the network. So, rather than ping sweeping the network or entering the nodes manually into OpenNMS Horizon Provisioning UI, nodes can be managed via 1 or more DNS servers.

The format of the URL for this new protocol handler is: dns://<host>[:port]/<zone>[/<foreign-source>/][?expression=<regex>]

DNS Import Examples:

Simple
dns://my-dns-server/myzone.com

This URL will import all A records from the host my-dns-server on port 53 (default port) from zone "myzone.com" and since the foreign source (a.k.a. the provisioning group) is not specified it will default to the specified zone.

Using a Regular Expression Filter
dns://my-dns-server/myzone.com/portland/?expression=^por-.*

This URL will import all nodes from the same server and zone but will only manage the nodes in the zone matching the regular expression ^port-.* and will and they will be assigned a unique foreign source (provisioning group) for managing these nodes as a subset of nodes from within the specified zone.

If your expression requires URL encoding (for example you need to use a ? in the expression) it must be properly encoded.

dns://my-dns-server/myzone.com/portland/?expression=^por[0-9]%3F
DNS Setup

Currently, the DNS server requires to be setup to allow a zone transfer from the OpenNMS Horizon server. It is recommended that a secondary DNS server is running on OpenNMS Horizon and that the OpenNMS Horizon server be allowed to request a zone transfer. A quick way to test if zone transfers are working is:

dig -t AXFR @<dnsServer> <zone>
Configuration

The configuration of the Provisoning system has moved from a properties file (model-importer.properties) to an XML based configuration container. The configuration is now extensible to allow the definition of 0 or more import requisitions each with their own cron based schedule for automatic importing from various sources (intended for integration with external URL such as http and this new dns protocol handler.

A default configuration is provided in the OpenNMS Horizon etc/ directory and is called: provisiond-configuration.xml. This default configuration has an example for scheduling an import from a DNS server running on the localhost requesting nodes from the zone, localhost and will be imported once per day at the stroke of midnight. Not very practical but is a good example.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <provisiond-configuration xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.opennms.org/xsd/config/provisiond-configuration"
                              foreign-source-dir="/opt/opennms/etc/foreign-sources"
                              requistion-dir="/opt/opennms/etc/imports"
                              importThreads="8"
                              scanThreads="10"
                              rescanThreads="10"
                              writeThreads="8" >

    <!--http://www.quartz-scheduler.org/documentation/quartz-1.x/tutorials/crontrigger
        Field Name Allowed Values Allowed Special Characters
        Seconds 0-59 , - * / Minutes 0-59 , - * / Hours 0-23 , - * /
        Day-of-month1-31, - * ? / L W C Month1-12 or JAN-DEC, - * /
        Day-of-Week1-7 or SUN-SAT, - * ? / L C # Year (Opt)empty, 1970-2099, - * /
    -->

    <requisition-def import-name="localhost"
                     import-url-resource="dns://localhost/localhost">

        <cron-schedule>0 0 0 * * ? *</cron-schedule> <!-- daily, at midnight -->
    </requisition-def>
</provisiond-configuration>
Configuration Reload

Like many of the daemon configuration in the 1.7 branch, the configurations are reloadable without having to restart OpenNMS Horizon, using the reloadDaemonConfig uei:

/opt/opennms/bin/send-event.pl
uei.opennms.org/internal/reloadDaemonConfig --parm 'daemonName Provisiond'

This means that you don’t have to restart OpenNMS Horizon every time you update the configuration.

10.5. Provisioning Examples

Here are a few practical examples of enhanced directed discovery to help with your understanding of this feature.

10.5.1. Basic Provisioning

This example adds three nodes and requires no OpenNMS Horizon configuration other than specifying the node entities to be provisioned and managed in OpenNMS Horizon.

Defining the Nodes via the Web-UI

Using the Provisioning Groups Web-UI, three nodes are created given a single IP address. Navigate to the Admin Menu and click Provisioning Groups Menu from the list of Admin options and create the group Bronze.

Creating a new Provisioning Group

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Clicking the Add New Group button will create the group and will redisplay the page including this new group among the list of any group(s) that have already been created.

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At this point, the XML structure for holding the new provisioning group (a.k.a. an import requisition) has been persisted to the '$OPENNMS_ETC/imports/pending' directory.

Clicking the Edit link will bring you to the screen where you can begin the process of defining node entities that will be imported into OpenNMS Horizon. Click the Add Node button will begin the node entity creation process fill in the node label and click the Save button.

Creating a new Node definition in the Provisioning Group

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At this point, the provisioning group contains the basic structure of a node entity but it is not complete until the interface(s) and interface service(s) have been defined. After having clicked the Save button, as we did above presents, in the Web-UI, the options Add Interface, Add Node Category, and Add Node Asset. Click the Add Interface link to add an interface entity to the node.

Adding an Interface to the node definition

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Enter the IP address for this interface entity, a description, and specify the Primary attribute as P (Primary), S (Secondary), N (Not collected), or C (Collected) and click the save button. Now the node entity has an interface for which services can be defined for which the Web-UI now presents the Add Service link. Add two services (ICMP, SNMP) via this link.

A complete node definition with all required elements defined.

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Now the node entity definition contains all the required elements necessary for importing this requisition into OpenNMS Horizon. At this point, all the interfaces that are required for the node should be added. For example, NAT interfaces should be specified there are services that they provide because they will not be discovered during the Scan Phase.

Two more node definitions will be added for the benefit of this example.

The completed requisition for the example Bronze Provisioning Group

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This set of nodes represents an import requisition for the Bronze provisioning group. As this requisition is being edited via the WebUI, changes are being persisted into the OpenNMS Horizon configuration directory '$OPENNMS_etc/imports/' pending as an XML file having the name bronze.xml.

The name of the XML file containing the import requisition is the same as the provisioning group name. Therefore naming your provisioning group without the use of spaces makes them easier to manage on the file system.

Click the Done button to return to the Provisioning Groups list screen. The details of the “Bronze” group now indicates that there are 3 nodes in the requisition and that there are no nodes in the DB from this group (a.k.a. foreign source). Additionally, you can see that time the requisition was last modified and the time it last imported are given (the time stamps are stored as attributes inside the requisition and are not the file system time stamps). These details are indicative of how well the DB represents what is in the requisition.

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You can tell that this is a pending requisition for 2 reasons: 1) there are 3 nodes defined and 0 nodes in the DB, 2) the requisition has been modified since the last import (in this case never).
Import the Nodes

In this example, you see that there are 3 nodes in the pending requisition and 0 in the DB. Click the Import button to submit the requisition to the provisioning system (what actually happens is that the Web-UI sends an event to the Provisioner telling it to begin the Import Phase for this group).

Do not refresh this page to check the values of these details. To refresh the details to verify the import, click the Provisioning Groups bread crumb item.

You should be able to immediately verify the importation of this provisioning group because the import happens very quickly. Provisiond has several threads ready for processing the import operations of the nodes defined in this requisition.

A few SNMP packets are sent and received to get the SNMP details of the node and the interfaces defined in the requisition. Upon receipt of these packets (or not) each node is inserted as a DB transaction.

The nodes are now added to OpenNMS Horizon and are under management.

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Following the import of a node with thousands of interfaces, you will be able to refresh the Interface table browser on the Node page and see that interfaces and services are being discovered and added in the background. This is the discovery component of directed discovery.

Adding a Node

To direct that another node be added from a foreign source (in this example the Bronze Provisioning Group) simply add a new node definition and re-import. It is important to remember that all the node definitions will be re-imported and the existing managed nodes will be updated, if necessary.

Changing a Node

To direct changes to an existing node, simply add, change, or delete elements or attributes of the node definition and re- import. This is a great feature of having directed specific elements of a node in the requisition because that attributes will simply be changed. For example, to change the IP address of the Primary SNMP interface for the node, barbrady.opennms.org, just change the requisition and re-import.

Each element in the Web-UI has an associated Edit icon Click this icon to change the IP address for barbrady.opennms.org, click save, and then Click the Done button.

Changing the IP address of barbrady.opennms.org from 10.1.1.2 to 192.168.1.1

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The Web-UI will return you to the Provisioning Groups screen where you will see that there are the time stamp showing that the requisition’s last modification is more recent that the last import time.

The Provisioning Group must be re-imported

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This provides an indication that the group must be re-imported for the changes made to the requisition to take effect. The IP Interface will be simply updated and all the required events (messages) will be sent to communicate this change within OpenNMS Horizon.

The IP interface for barbrady.opennms.org is immediately updated

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Deleting a Node

Barbrady has not been behaving, as one might expect, so it is time to remove him from the system. Edit the provisioning group, click the delete button next to the node barbrady.opennms.org, click the Done button.

Bronze Provisioning Group definition indicates a node has been removed and requires an import to delete the node entity from the OpenNMS Horizon system

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Click the Import button for the Bronze group and the Barbrady node and its interfaces, services, and any other related data will be immediately deleted from the OpenNMS Horizon system. All the required Events (messages) will be sent by Provisiond to provide indication to the OpenNMS Horizon system that the node Barbrady has been deleted.

Barbrady has been deleted

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Deleting all the Nodes

There is a convenient way to delete all the nodes that have been provided from a specific foreign source. From the main Admin/Provisioning Groups screen in the Web-UI, click the Delete Nodes button. This button deletes all the nodes defined in the Bronze requisition. It is very important to note that once this is done, it cannot be undone! Well it can’t be undone from the Web-UI and can only be undone if you’ve been good about keeping a backup copy of your '$OPENMS_ETC/' directory tree. If you’ve made a mistake, before you re-import the requisition, restore the Bronze.xml requisition from your backup copy to the '$OPENNMS_ETC/imports' directory.

All node definitions have been removed from the Bronze requisition. The Web-UI indicates an import is now required to remove them from OpenNMS Horizon.

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Clicking the Import button will cause the Audit Phase of Provisiond to determine that all the nodes from the Bronze group (foreign source) should be deleted from the DB and will create Delete operations. At this point, if you are satisfied that the nodes have been deleted and that you will no longer require nodes to be defined in this Group, you will see that the Delete Nodes button has now changed to the Delete Group button. The Delete Group button is displayed when there are no nodes entities from that group (foreign source) in OpenNMS Horizon.

When no node entities from the group exist in OpenNMS Horizon, then the Delete Group button is displayed.

10.5.2. Advanced Provisioning Example

In the previous example, we provisioned 3 nodes and let Provisiond complete all of its import phases using a default foreign source definition. Each Provisioning Group can have a separate foreign source definition that controls:

  • The rescan interval

  • The services to be detected

  • The policies to be applied

This example will demonstrate how to create a foreign source definition and how it is used to control the behavior of Provisiond when importing a Provisioning Group/foreign source requisition.

First let’s simply provision the node and let the default foreign source definition apply.

The node definition used for the Advanced Provisioning Example

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Following the import, All the IP and SNMP interfaces, in addition to the interface specified in the requisition, have been discovered and added to the node entity. The default foreign source definition has no polices for controlling which interfaces that are discovered either get persisted or managed by OpenNMS Horizon.

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Logical and Physical interface and Service entities directed and discovered by Provisiond.

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Service Detection

As IP interfaces are found during the node scan process, service detection tasks are scheduled for each IP interface. The service detections defined in the foreign source determines which services are to be detected and how (i.e. the values of the parameters that parameters control how the service is detected, port, timeout, etc.).

Applying a New Foreign Source Definition

This example node has been provisioned using the Default foreign source definition. By navigating to the Provisioning Groups screen in the OpenNMS Horizon Web-UI and clicking the Edit Foreign Source link of a group, you can create a new foreign source definition that defines service detection and policies. The policies determine entity persistence and/or set attributes on the discovered entities that control OpenNMS Horizon management behaviors.

When creating a new foreign source definition, the default definition is used as a template.

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In this UI, new Detectors can be added, changed, and removed. For this example, we will remove detection of all services accept ICMP and DNS, change the timeout of ICMP detection, and a new Service detection for OpenNMS Horizon Web-UI.

Custom foreign source definition created for NMS Provisioning Group (foreign source).

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Click the Done button and re-import the NMS Provisioning Group. During this and any subsequent re-imports or re- scans, the OpenNMS Horizon detector will be active, and the detectors that have been removed will no longer test for the related services for the interfaces on nodes managed in the provisioning group (requisition), however, the currently detected services will not be removed. There are 2 ways to delete the previously detected services:

  1. Delete the node in the provisioning group, re-import, define it again, and finally re-import again

  2. Use the ReST API to delete unwanted services. Use this command to remove each unwanted service from each interface, iteratively:

    curl -X DELETE -H "Content-Type: application/xml" -u admin:admin http://localhost:8980/opennms/rest/nodes/6/ipinterfaces/172.16.1.1/services/DNS
There is a sneaky way to do #1. Edit the provisioning group and just change the foreign ID. That will make Provisiond think that a node was deleted and a new node was added in the same requisition! Use this hint with caution and an full understanding of the impact of deleting an existing node.
Provisioning with Policies

The Policy API in Provisiond allow you to control the persistence of discovered IP and SNMP Interface entities and Node Categories during the Scan phase.

Matching IP Interface Policy

The Matching IP Interface policy controls whether discovered interfaces are to be persisted and if they are to be persisted, whether or not they will be forced to be Managed or Unmanaged.

Continuing with this example Provisioning Group, we are going to define a few policies that:

  1. Prevent discovered 10 network addresses from being persisted

  2. Force 192.168 network addresses to be unmanaged

From the foreign source definition screen, click the Add Policy button and the definition of a new policy will begin with a field for naming the policy and a drop down list of the currently installed policies. Name the policy no10s, make sure that the Match IP Interface policy is specified in the class list and click the Save button. This action will automatically add all the parameters required for the policy.

The two required parameters for this policy are action and matchBehavior.

The action parameter can be set to DO_NOT_PERSIST, Manage, or UnManage.

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Creating a policy to prevent persistence of 10 network IP interfaces.

The DO_NOT_PERSIST action does just what it indicates, it prevents discovered IP interface entities from being added to OpenNMS Horizon when the matchBehavior is satisfied. The Manage and UnManage values for this action allow the IP interface entity to be persisted by control whether or not that interface should be managed by OpenNMS Horizon.

The matchBehavior action is a boolean control that determines how the optional parameters will be evaluated. Setting this parameter’s value to ALL_PARAMETERS causes Provisiond to evaluate each optional parameter with boolean AND logic and the value ANY_PARAMETERS will cause OR logic to be applied.

Now we will add one of the optional parameters to filter the 10 network addresses. The Matching IP Interface policy supports two additional parameters, hostName and ipAddress. Click the Add Parameter link and choose ipAddress as the key. The value for either of the optional parameters can be an exact or regular expression match. As in most configurations in OpenNMS Horizon where regular expression matching can be optionally applied, prefix the value with the ~ character.

Example Matching IP Interface Policy to not Persist 10 Network addresses

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Any subsequent scan of the node or re-imports of NMS provisioning group will force this policy to be applied. IP Interface entities that already exist that match this policy will not be deleted. Existing interfaces can be deleted by recreating the node in the Provisioning Groups screen (simply change the foreign ID and re-import the group) or by using the ReST API:

curl -X DELETE -H "Content-Type: application/xml" -u admin:admin http://localhost:8980/opennms/rest/nodes/6/ipinterfaces/10.1.1.1

The next step in this example is to define a policy that sets discovered 192.168 network addresses to be unmanaged (not managed) in OpenNMS Horizon. Again, click the Add Policy button and let’s call this policy noMgt192168s. Again, choose the Mach IP Interface policy and this time set the action to UNMANAGE.

Policy to not manage IP interfaces from 192.168 networks

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The UNMANAGE behavior will be applied to existing interfaces.
Matching SNMP Interface Policy

Like the Matching IP Interface Policy, this policy controls the whether discovered SNMP interface entities are to be persisted and whether or not OpenNMS Horizon should collect performance metrics from the SNMP agent for Interface’s index (MIB2 IfIndex).

In this example, we are going to create a policy that doesn’t persist interfaces that are AAL5 over ATM or type 49 (ifType). Following the same steps as when creating an IP Management Policy, edit the foreign source definition and create a new policy. Let’s call it: noAAL5s. We’ll use Match SNMP Interface class for each policy and add a parameter with ifType as the key and 49 as the value.

Matching SNMP Interface Policy example for Persistence and Data Collection

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At the appropriate time during the scanning phase, Provisiond will evaluate the policies in the foreign source definition and take appropriate action. If during the policy evaluation process any policy matches for a “DO_NOT_PERSIST” action, no further policy evaluations will happen for that particular entity (IP Interface, SNMP Interface).
Node Categorization Policy

With this policy, nodes entities will automatically be assigned categories. The policy is defined in the same manner as the IP and SNMP interface polices. Click the Add Policy button and give the policy name, cisco and choose the Set Node Category class. Edit the required category key and set the value to Cisco. Add a policy parameter and choose the sysObjectId key with a value ~^\.1\.3\.6\.1\.4\.1\.9\..*.

Example: Node Category setting policy

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Script Policy

This policy allows to use Groovy scripts to modify provisioned node data. These scripts have to be placed in the OpenNMS Horizon etc/script-policies directory. An example would be the change of the node’s primary interface or location. The script will be invoked for each matching node. The following example shows the source code for setting the 192.168.100.0/24 interface to PRIMARY while all remaining interfaces are set to SECONDARY. Furthermore the node’s location is set to Minneapolis.

import org.opennms.netmgt.model.OnmsIpInterface;
import org.opennms.netmgt.model.monitoringLocations.OnmsMonitoringLocation;
import org.opennms.netmgt.model.PrimaryType;

for(OnmsIpInterface iface : node.getIpInterfaces()) {
    if (iface.getIpAddressAsString().matches("^192\\.168\\.100\\..*")) {
        LOG.warn(iface.getIpAddressAsString() + " set to PRIMARY")
        iface.setIsSnmpPrimary(PrimaryType.PRIMARY)
    } else {
        LOG.warn(iface.getIpAddressAsString() + " set to SECONDARY")
        iface.setIsSnmpPrimary(PrimaryType.SECONDARY)
    }
}

node.setLocation(new OnmsMonitoringLocation("Minneapolis", ""));

return node;
New Import Capabilities

Several new XML entities have been added to the import requisition since the introduction of the OpenNMS Importer service in version 1.6. So, in addition to provisioning the basic node, interface, service, and node categories, you can now also provision asset data.

Provisiond Configuration

The configuration of the Provisioning system has moved from a properties file (model-importer.properties) to an XML based configuration container. The configuration is now extensible to allow the definition of 0 or more import requisitions each with their own Cron based schedule for automatic importing from various sources (intended for integration with external URL such as HTTP and this new DNS protocol handler.

A default configuration is provided in the OpenNMS Horizon etc/ directory and is called: provisiond-configuration.xml. This default configuration has an example for scheduling an import from a DNS server running on the localhost requesting nodes from the zone, localhost and will be imported once per day at the stroke of midnight. Not very practical but is a good example.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <provisiond-configuration xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.opennms.org/xsd/config/provisiond-configuration"
        foreign-source-dir="/opt/opennms/etc/foreign-sources"
        requistion-dir="/opt/opennms/etc/imports"
        importThreads="8"
        scanThreads="10"
        rescanThreads="10"
        writeThreads="8" >
    <!--
        http://www.quartz-scheduler.org/documentation/quartz-1.x/tutorials/crontrigger[http://www.quartz-scheduler.org/documentation/quartz-1.x/tutorials/crontrigger]
        Field Name Allowed Values Allowed Special Characters
        Seconds 0-59 , - * / Minutes 0-59 , - * / Hours 0-23 , - * /
        Day-of-month1-31, - * ? / L W C Month1-12 or JAN-DEC, - * /
        Day-of-Week1-7 or SUN-SAT, - * ? / L C # Year (Opt)empty, 1970-2099, - * /
    -->

    <requisition-def import-name="NMS"
                     import-url-resource="file://opt/opennms/etc/imports/NMS.xml">
        <cron-schedule>0 0 0 * * ? *</cron-schedule> <!-- daily, at midnight -->
    </requisition-def>
</provisiond-configuration>
Configuration Reload

Like many of the daemon configurations in the 1.7 branch, Provisiond’s configuration is re-loadable without having to restart OpenNMS. Use the reloadDaemonConfig uei:

/opt/opennms/bin/send-event.pl uei.opennms.org/internal/reloadDaemonConfig --parm 'daemonName Provisiond'

This means that you don’t have to restart OpenNMS Horizon every time you update the configuration!

Provisioning Asset Data

The Provisioning Groups Web-UI had been updated to expose the ability to add Node Asset data in an import requisition. Click the Add Node Asset link and you can select from a drop down list all the possible node asset attributes that can be defined.

00024

After an import, you can navigate to the Node Page and click the Asset Info link and see the asset data that was just provided in the requisition.

000004

External Requisition Sources

Because Provisiond takes a URL as the location service for import requisitions, OpenNMS Horizon can be easily extended to support sources in addition to the native URL handling provided by Java: file://, http://, and https://. When you configure Provisiond to import requisitions on a schedule you specify using a URL Resource. For requisitions created by the Provisioning Groups WebUI, you can specify a file based URL.

<need further documentation>
Provisioning Nodes from DNS

The new Provisioning service in OpenNMS Horizon is continuously improving and adapting to the needs of the community. One of the most recent enhancements to the system is built upon the very flexible and extensible API of referencing an import requisition’s location via a URL. Most commmonly, these URLs are files on the file system (i.e. file:/opt/opennms/etc/imports/<my-provisioning-group.xml>) as requisitions created by the Provisioning Groups UI. However, these same requistions for adding, updating, and deleting nodes (based on the original model importer) can also come from URLs specifying the HTTP protocol: http://myinventory.server.org/nodes.cgi)

Now, using Java’s extensible protocol handling specification, a new protocol handler was created so that a URL can be specified for requesting a Zone Transfer (AXFR) request from a DNS server. The A records are recorded and used to build an import requisition. This is handy for organizations that use DNS (possibly coupled with an IP management tool) as the data base of record for nodes in the network. So, rather than ping sweeping the network or entering the nodes manually into OpenNMS Horizon Provisioning UI, nodes can be managed via 1 or more DNS servers. The format of the URL for this new protocol handler is:

dns://<host>[:port]/<zone>[/<foreign-source>/][?expression=<regex>]
Simple Example
dns://my-dns-server/myzone.com

This will import all A records from the host my-dns-server on port 53 (default port) from zone myzone.com and since the foreign source (a.k.a. the provisioning group) is not specified it will default to the specified zone.

Using a Regular Expression Filter

You can also specify a subset of the A records from the zone transfer using a regular expression:

dns://my-dns-server/myzone.com/portland/?expression=^por-.*

This will import all nodes from the same server and zone but will only manage the nodes in the zone matching the regular expression ^port-.* and will and they will be assigned a unique foreign source (provisioning group) for managing these nodes as a subset of nodes from within the specified zone.

URL Encoding

If your expression requires URL encoding (for example you need to use a ? in the expression) it must be properly encoded.

dns://my-dns-server/myzone.com/portland/?expression=^por[0-9]%3F
DNS Setup

Currently, the DNS server requires to be setup to allow a zone transfer from the OpenNMS Horizon server. It is recommended that a secondary DNS server is running on OpenNMS Horizon and that the OpenNMS Horizon server be allowed to request a zone transfer. A quick way to test if zone transfers are working is:

dig -t AXFR @<dn5Server> <zone>

10.6. Adapters

The OpenNMS Horizon Provisiond API also supports Provisioning Adapters (plugins) for integration with external systems during the provisioning Import phase. When node entities are added, updated, deleted, or receive a configuration management change event, OpenNMS Horizon will call the adapter for the provisioning activities with integrated systems.

Currently, OpenNMS Horizon supports the following adapters:

10.6.1. DDNS Adapter

The Opposite end of Provisiond integration from the DNS Requisition Import, is the DDNS adapter. This adapter uses the dynamic DNS protocol to update a DNS system as nodes are provisioned into OpenNMS Horizon. To configure this adapter, edit the opennms.properties file and set the importer.adapter.dns.server property:

importer.adapter.dns.server=192.168.1.1

10.6.2. RANCID Adapter

Integration has been integrated with RANCID though this new API.

<More documentation needed>
Maps (soon to be moved to Mapd) <documentation required>
WiMax-Link (soon to be moved to Linkd) <documentation required>

10.7. Integrating with Provisiond

The ReST API should be used for integration from other provisioning systems with OpenNMS Horizon. The ReST API provides an interface for defining foreign sources and requisitions.

10.7.1. Provisioning Groups of Nodes

Just as with the WebUI, groups of nodes can be managed via the ReST API from an external system. The steps are:

  1. Create a Foreign Source (if not using the default) for the group

  2. Update the SNMP configuration for each node in the group

  3. Create/Update the group of nodes

10.7.2. Example

Step 1 - Create a Foreign Source

If policies for this group of nodes are going to be specified differently than the default policy, then a foreign source should be created for the group. Using the ReST API, a foreign source can be provided. Here is an example:

The XML can be imbedded in the curl command option -d or be referenced from a file if the @ prefix is used with the file name as in this case.

The XML file: customer-a.foreign-source.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
<foreign-source date-stamp="2009-10-12T17:26:11.616-04:00" name="customer-a" xmlns="http://xmlns.opennms.org/xsd/config/foreign-source">
    <scan-interval>1d</scan-interval>
    <detectors>
        <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.icmp.IcmpDetector" name="ICMP"/>
        <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.snmp.SnmpDetector" name="SNMP"/>
    </detectors>
    <policies>
        <policy class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.persist.policies.MatchingIpInterfacePolicy" name="no-192-168">
            <parameter value="UNMANAGE" key="action"/>
            <parameter value="ALL_PARAMETERS" key="matchBehavior"/>
            <parameter value="~^192\.168\..*" key="ipAddress"/>
        </policy>
    </policies>
</foreign-source>

Here is an example curl command used to create the foreign source with the above foreign source specification above:

curl -v -u admin:admin -X POST -H 'Content-type: application/xml' -d '@customer-a.foreign-source.xml' http://localhost:8980/opennms/rest/foreignSources

Now that you’ve created the foreign source, it needs to be deployed by Provisiond. Here an the example using the curl command to deploy the foreign source:

curl -v -u admin:admin http://localhost:8980/opennms/rest/foreignSources/pending/customer-a/deploy -X PUT
The current API doesn’t strictly follow the ReST design guidelines and will be updated in a later release.
Step 2 - Update the SNMP configuration

The implementation only supports a PUT request because it is an implied "Update" of the configuration since it requires an IP address and all IPs have a default configuration. This request is is passed to the SNMP configuration factory in OpenNMS Horizon for optimization of the configuration store snmp-config.xml. This example changes the community string for the IP address 10.1.1.1 to yRuSonoZ.

Community string is the only required element
curl -v -X PUT -H "Content-Type: application/xml" -H "Accept: application/xml" -d <snmp-info><community>yRuSonoZ</community><port>161</port><retries>1</retries><timeout>2000</timeout><version>v2c</version></snmp-info>" -u admin:admin http://localhost:8980/opennms/rest/snmpConfig/10.1.1.1
Step 3 - Create/Update the Requisition

This example adds 2 nodes to the Provisioning Group, customer-a. Note that the foreign-source attribute typically has a 1 to 1 relationship to the name of the Provisioning Group requisition. There is a direct relationship between the foreign- source attribute in the requisition and the foreign source policy specification. Also, typically, the name of the provisioning group will also be the same. In the following example, the ReST API will automatically create a provisioning group based on the value foreign-source attribute specified in the XML requisition.

curl -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/xml" -d "<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><model-import xmlns="http://xmlns.opennms.org/xsd/config/model-import" date-stamp="2009-03-07T17:56:53.123-05:00" last-import="2009-03-07T17:56:53.117-05:00" foreign-source="customer-a"><node node-label="p-brane" foreign-id="1" ><interface ip-addr="10.0.1.3" descr="en1" status="1" snmp-primary="P"><monitored-service service-name="ICMP"/><monitored-service service-name="SNMP"/></interface><category name="Production"/><category name="Routers"/></node><node node-label="m-brane" foreign-id="1" ><interface ip-addr="10.0.1.4" descr="en1" status="1" snmp-primary="P"><monitored-service service-name="ICMP"/><monitored-service service-name="SNMP"/></interface><category name="Production"/><category name="Routers"/></node></model-import>" -u admin:admin http://localhost:8980/opennms/rest/requisitions

A provisioning group file called etc/imports/customer-a.xml will be found on the OpenNMS Horizon system following the successful completion of this curl command and will also be visible via the WebUI.

Add, Update, Delete operations are handled via the ReST API in the same manner as described in detailed specification.

10.8. Provisioning Single Nodes (Quick Add Node)

Adding a Node to a Current Requisition

Often, it is requested that a single node add/update be completed for an already defined provisioning group. There is a ReST API for the Add Node implementation found in the OpenNMS Horizon Web-UI. For this to work, the provisioning group must already exist in the system even if there are no nodes defined in the group.

  1. Create a foreign source (if required)

  2. Specify SNMP configuration

  3. Provide a single node with the following specification

10.9. Fine Grained Provisioning Using provision.pl

provision.pl provides an example command-line interface to the provisioning-related OpenNMS Horizon REST API endpoints.

The script has many options but the first 3 optional parameters are described here:

You can use --help to the script to see all the available options.
--username (default: admin)
--password (default: admin)
--url (default: http://localhost:8980/opennms/rest)

10.9.1. Create a new requisition

provision.pl provides easy access to the requisition REST service using the requisition option:

${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl requisition customer1

This command will create a new, empty (containing no nodes) requisition in OpenNMS Horizon.

The new requisition starts life in the pending state. This allows you to iteratively build the requisition and then later actually import the nodes in the requisition into OpenNMS Horizon. This handles all adds/changes/deletes at once. So, you could be making changes all day and then at night either have a schedule in OpenNMS Horizon that imports the group automatically or you can send a command through the REST service from an outside system to have the pending requisition imported/reimported.

You can get a list of all existing requisitions with the list option of the provision.pl script:

${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl list
Create a new Node
${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl node add customer1 1 node-a

This command creates a node element in the requisition customer1 called node-a using the script’s node option. The node’s foreign-ID is 1 but it can be any alphanumeric value as long as it is unique within the requisition. Note the node has no interfaces or services yet.

Add an Interface Element to that Node
${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl interface add customer1 1 127.0.0.1

This command adds an interface element to the node element using the interface option to the provision.pl command and it can now be seen in the pending requisition by running provision.pl requisition list customer1.

Add a Couple of Services to that Interface
${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl service add customer1 1 127.0.0.1 ICMP
${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl service add customer1 1 127.0.0.1 SNMP

This adds the 2 services to the specified 127.0.0.1 interface and is now in the pending requisition.

Set the Primary SNMP Interface
${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl interface set customer1 1 127.0.0.1 snmp-primary P

This sets the 127.0.0.1 interface to be the node’s Primary SNMP interface.

Add a couple of Node Categories
${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl category add customer1 1 Routers
${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl category add customer1 1 Production

This adds the two categories to the node and is now in the pending requisition.

These categories are case-sensitive but do not have to be already defined in OpenNMS Horizon. They will be created on the fly during the import if they do not already exist.

Setting Asset Fields on a Node
${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl asset add customer1 1 serialnumber 9999

This will add value of 9999 to the asset field: serialnumber.

Deploy the Import Requisition (Creating the Group)
${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl requisition import customer1

This will cause OpenNMS Horizon Provisiond to import the pending customer1 requisition. The formerly pending requisition will move into the deployed state inside OpenNMS Horizon.

Deleting a Node from a Requisition

Very much the same as the add, except that a single delete command and a re-import is required. What happens is that the audit phase is run by Provisiond and it will be determined that a node has been removed from the requisition and the node will be deleted from the DB and all services will stop activities related to it.

${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl node delete customer1 1 node-a
${OPENNMS_HOME}/bin/provision.pl requisition import customer1

This completes the life cycle of managing a node element, iteratively, in a import requisition.

10.10. Yet Other API Examples

List the Nodes in a Provisioning Group

The provision.pl script doesn’t supply this feature but you can get it via the REST API. Here is an example using curl:

#!/bin/bash
REQ=$1
curl -X GET -H "Content-Type: application/xml" -u admin:admin http://localhost:8980/opennms/rest/requisitions/$REQ 2>/dev/null | xmllint --format -

10.11. Service Detectors

10.11.1. HTTP Detector

This detector is used to find and assigns services based on HTTP.

Detector facts

Implementation

org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.simple.HttpDetector

Configuration and Usage
Table 96. Parameters for the HTTP detector
Parameter Description Required Default value

checkRetCode

If set to true only HTTP status codes that are the same or lower than the value of maxRetCode pass.

optional

false

maxRetCode

Highest HTTP response code that passes. maxRetCode is only evaluated if checkRetCode is set to true.

optional

399

port

Port to query .

optional

80

url

Url to query

optional

/

timeout

Timeout in milliseconds to wait for a response.

optional

2000

Please note: The Http Detector makes only one http request and doesn’t follow redirects.

Example Configuration
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
<foreign-source date-stamp="2010-06-29T13:15:30.494+02:00" name="test" xmlns="http://xmlns.opennms.org/xsd/config/foreign-source">
  <scan-interval>1d</scan-interval>
  <detectors>
    <detector class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.simple.HttpDetector" name="http8080">
      <parameter key="port" value="8080"/>
      <parameter key="url" value="index2.html" />
      <parameter key="maxRetCode" value="200"/>
      <parameter key="checkRetCode" value="true"/>
    </detector>
  </detectors>
  <policies/>
</foreign-source>

10.11.2. HTTPS Detector

This detector is used to find and assigns services based on HTTPS.

Detector facts

Implementation

org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.simple.HttpsDetector

Configuration and Usage
Parameters for the HTTPS detector

The parameters are the same as for the HTTP detector

10.11.3. SNMP Detector

This detector is used to find and assigns services based on SNMP. The detector binds a service with a given Service Name when a particular SNMP OID as scalar or table matches a given criteria.

Detector facts

Implementation

org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.snmp.SnmpDetector

Configuration and Usage
Table 97. Parameters for the SNMP detector
Parameter Description Required Default value

oid

SNMP OID for scalar or table to detect the service.

required

.1.3.6.1.2.1.1.2.0

retry

Number of retries to detect the service.

optional

agent config

timeout

Timeout in milliseconds to wait for a response from the SNMP agent.

optional

agent config

vbvalue

expected return value to detect the service; if not specified the service is detected if the SNMP OID returned any kind of valid value. The vbvalue is evaluated as Java Regular Expression.

optional

-

hex

Set true if the data is from type HEX-String.

optional

false

isTable

Set true if detector should evaluate SNMP tables.

optional

false

matchType

Set match type to evaluate the expected value in the SNMP table.
EXIST: the expected vbalue is ignored, service detected if the given table under OID exist
ALL: all values in the table must match against expected vbalue to detect service
ANY: at least one value in the table must match against expected vbalue to detect service
NONE: None of the values should match against expected value to detect service

optional

EXIST

Example for SNMP scalar value

We have Dell server farm and want to monitor the global server status provided by the OpenManage Server Administrator. Global status is provided by a scalar OID .1.3.6.1.4.1.674.10892.1.200.10.1.2.1. The service should be automatically detected if the server supports this OID.

For provisioning we have a requisition named Server which contains all server of our data center. A Detector with the name Dell-OMSA-Global-State for this requisition is created with the following parameter:

Table 98. Parameters for the SNMP detector
Parameter Value

Name

Dell-OMSA-Global-State

oid

.1.3.6.1.4.1.674.10892.1.200.10.1.2.1

When the requisition Server is synchronized the service Dell-OMSA-Global-State will be detected in case they support the given SNMP OID.

Example using SNMP tables

We have a HP server farm and want to monitor the status of logical drives over SNMP provided from HP Insight Manager. The status for logical drives is provided in a SNMP Table under .1.3.6.1.4.1.232.3.2.3.1.1.4. The service should be automatically assigned to all servers exposing the given SNMP OID.

For provisioning we have a requisition named Server which contains all server of our data center. A Detector with the name HP-Insight-Drive-Logical for this requisition is created with the following parameter:

Table 99. Parameters for the SNMP detector
Parameter Value

Name

HP-Insight-Drive-Logical

oid

.1.3.6.1.4.1.232.3.2.3.1.1.4

isTable

true

When the requisition Server is synchronized the service HP-Insight-Drive-Logical will be detected in case they support the given SNMP OID table.

10.11.4. WS-Man Detector

The WS-Management detector attempts to connect to the agent defined in wsman-config.xml and issues an Identify command. If the Identify command is successful, the service is marked as detected and the product details returned by the command are optionally stored in the asset fields (see details bellow.)

Detector facts

Implementation

org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.wsman.WsManDetector

Configuration and Usage
Table 100. Parameters for the <DETECTOR-NAME-HERE>
Parameter Description Required Default value

updateAssets

Stores the product vendor and product version in the vendor and modelNumber asset fields

false

true

Examples

If a valid response to the Identify command is received, the product vendor and product version are stored in the vendor and modelNumber fields of the associated node`s assets table.

For example, a Windows Server 2008 machine returns:

Product Vendor

Microsoft Corporation

Product Version

OS: 6.1.7601 SP: 1.0 Stack: 2.0

If these assets field are being used for another purpose, this behavior can be disabled by settings the updateAssets parameters to false in the detector configuration of the appropriate foreign source.

Some agents may respond to the Identify command with generic identities such as Openwsman 2.0.0. These values can be overridden by specifying the product-vendor and product-version attributes in wsman-config.xml.

Example detector configuration:

<detector name="WS-Man" class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.wsman.WsManDetector">
    <parameter key="updateAssets" value="true"/>
</detector>

The response is logged as DEBUG information in provisiond.log and looks like the following:

ID: 3
Response-Code: 200
309Encoding: UTF-8
Content-Type: application/soap+xml;charset=UTF-8
Headers: {Content-Length=[787], content-type=[application/soap+xml;charset=UTF-8], Date=[Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:21:20 GMT], Server=[Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0]}
Payload:
<s:Envelope xmlns:s="http://www.w3.org/2003/05/soap-envelope" xml:lang="en-US">
  <s:Header/>
  <s:Body>
    <wsmid:IdentifyResponse xmlns:wsmid="http://schemas.dmtf.org/wbem/wsman/identity/1/wsmanidentity.xsd">
    <wsmid:ProtocolVersion>http://schemas.dmtf.org/wbem/wsman/1/wsman.xsd</wsmid:ProtocolVersion>
    <wsmid:ProductVendor>Microsoft Corporation</wsmid:ProductVendor>(1)
    <wsmid:ProductVersion>OS: 6.2.9200 SP: 0.0 Stack: 3.0</wsmid:ProductVersion>(2)
    <wsmid:SecurityProfiles>
      <wsmid:SecurityProfileName>http://schemas.dmtf.org/wbem/wsman/1/wsman/secprofile/http/basic</wsmid:SecurityProfileName>
      <wsmid:SecurityProfileName>http://schemas.dmtf.org/wbem/wsman/1/wsman/secprofile/http/spnego-kerberos</wsmid:SecurityProfileName>
    </wsmid:SecurityProfiles>
    </wsmid:IdentifyResponse>
  </s:Body>
</s:Envelope>
1 ProductVendor: Stored to the asset field vendor
2 ProductVersion: Stored in the asset field modelNumber
The information of the asset fields are used in the System Definition Rule to decide which performance metrics will be gathered from Collectd.

10.11.5. WS-Man WQL Detector

The WS-Management WQL detector attempts to connect to the agent defined in wsman-config.xml and issues a WQL query. If the query successfully returns one or more items, the service is marked as detected. The WS-Man WQL detector can be used to define arbitrary services based on WQL filter results.

Detector facts

Implementation

org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.wsman.WsManWQLDetector

Configuration and Usage
Table 101. Parameters for the <DETECTOR-NAME-HERE>
Parameter Description Required Default value

resourceUri

A resourceUri consists of a prefix and a path to a resource.

yes

http://schemas.microsoft.com/wbem/wsman/1/wmi/root/cimv2/*

wql

A query using the WQL filter dialect

yes

none

serviceName

A custom service name to identify this service

no

WsManWQLService

Examples

Example detector configuration:

<detector name="WinRM" class="org.opennms.netmgt.provision.detector.wsman.WsManWQLDetector">
   <parameter key="resourceUri" value="http://schemas.microsoft.com/wbem/wsman/1/wmi/root/cimv2/*"/>
   <parameter key="serviceName" value="WinRM"/>
   <parameter key="wql" value="select Name,Status from Win32_Service where Name = 'WinRM' and StartMode='Auto' and Status = 'OK'"/>
</detector>

The response is logged as DEBUG information in provisiond.log and looks like the following:

ID: 167
Response-Code: 200
Encoding: UTF-8
Content-Type: application/soap+xml;charset=UTF-8
Headers: {Content-Length=[975], content-type=[application/soap+xml;charset=UTF-8], Date=[Thu, 02 Aug 2018 20:34:33 GMT], Server=[Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0]
Payload: <s:Envelope xmlns:s="http://www.w3.org/2003/05/soap-envelope" xmlns:a="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/08/addressing" xmlns:n="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/09/enumeration" xmlns:w="http://schemas.dmtf.org/wbem/wsman/1/wsman.xsd" xml:lang="en-US">
  <s:Header>
    <a:Action>http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/09/enumeration/EnumerateResponse</a:Action>
    <a:MessageID>uuid:2298892C-575F-4722-82F6-C77F9E8B1A4F</a:MessageID>
    <a:To>http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/08/addressing/role/anonymous</a:To>
    <a:RelatesTo>urn:uuid:3c63e4d5-890c-4706-854b-876bf3b35b99</a:RelatesTo>
  </s:Header>
  <s:Body>
    <n:EnumerateResponse>
      <n:EnumerationContext/>
      <w:Items>
        <w:XmlFragment xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:w="http://schemas.dmtf.org/wbem/wsman/1/wsman.xsd" xmlns:m="http://schemas.microsoft.com/wbem/wsman/1/wsman.xsd">
          <Name>WinRM</Name>
          <Status>OK</Status>
        </w:XmlFragment>
      </w:Items>
      <w:EndOfSequence/>
    </n:EnumerateResponse>
  </s:Body>
</s:Envelope>

11. Business Service Monitoring

While OpenNMS Horizon detects issues in your network by device, interface or service, the Business Service Monitoring (BSM) takes it one step further. The BSM components allows you to monitor and model high level Business Services (BS) and helps quickly identify the most critical problems affecting these. With the BSM feature it is possible to model a high level BS context around the technical Service Monitors provided in OpenNMS Horizon. To indicate which BS is effected an Operational Status is calculated.

As an example, let’s assume a company runs an online store. Customers enter through a login system, select items, place them in the shopping cart and checkout using a payment system. The whole service is provided by a few web servers and access data from databases. To monitor the status of the databases, a SQL service monitor on each database server is configured. For testing the web servers a HTTP service monitor is used for each of them. Covering the overall functionality a Page Sequence Monitor (PSM) is used to test the login, shop and payment workflow through the provided web portal. A possible representation of the whole system hierarchy is shown in figure Example scenario for a web shop.

Example scenario for a web shop

01 bsm example scenario

To be able to model this scenarios the BSM functions can be used. The Business Service Monitoring (BSM) feature includes the following components:

  • Business Service Monitoring Daemon (BSMD): Maintains and drives the state of all BS

  • Business Service Editor: Web application which allows you to create, update or delete BS

  • Topology View for Business Services: Visual representation of the Business Service Hierarchy as a component of the Topology User Interface.

  • BSM ReST API: ReST based API to create, read, update or delete BS

11.1. Business Service Hierarchy

BS can depend on each other and build together a Business Service Hierarchy. It can be visualized using the Topology User Interface with the Business Services View. The Operational Status of a BS is ultimately calculated from Alarms and their Severity. To define the class of Alarms a Reduction Key is used and is represented as an Edge of a BS. Giving more granularity than just Up or Down, the Operational Status uses the Severities, i.e. Normal, Warning, Minor, Major, Critical.

Based on the hierarchy, the Operational Status is calculated with Map and Reduce Functions. A Map Function influences which Severity from the Edge is used as an input to the BS. A Reduce Function is used to consolidate the Severities from all Edges of a BS and uses them as inputs and reduces them into a single Severity, which is the Operational Status.

The Topology User Interface allows users to traverse Business Service Hierarchies using the Semantic Zoom Level (SZL). The Semantic Zoom Level (SZL, pronounced as 'sizzle') defines how many Neighbors are shown related to the elements which are in Focus. The number can be interpreted as how many Hops from the Focus should be shown on the Topology User Interface.

02 bsm service hierarchy
Figure 35. Business Service Hierarchy components
1 A top-level Business Service which depends on other Business Services, Monitored Services and Alarms (referenced by Reduction Key)
2 Business Service as child an the Operational Status is used as input for the top-level Business Service
3 IP Service Edge used as an input with auto generated Reduction Keys for node down, interface down and node lost service
4 Reduction Key Edge used as an input to the top-level BS, which references just a node lost service of a Page Sequence Monitor for the user login

To add or remove an additional selected BS or Edge to Focus use in the context menu Add To Focus or Remove From Focus. If you want to have a specific _BS or Edge as a single focus use Set as Focal Point. The Eye icon highlights all elements in the Topology UI which are set to Focus.

11.2. Operational status

Every Business Service maintains an Operational Status that represents the overall status calculated by the Map and Reduce Functions from the Edges. The Operational Status uses the Severities known from Events and Alarms.

Table 102. Operational Status representation
Name Numerical code Color / Code Description

Critical

7

Purple / #c00

This event means that a severe service affecting event has occurred.

Major

6

Red / #f30

Indicates serious disruption or malfunction of a service or system.

Minor

5

Orange / #f90

Used for troubles that have not immediate effect on service or system performance.

Warning

4

Yellow / #fc0

An event has occurred that may require action. This severity can also be used to indicate a condition that should be noted (logged) but does not require immediate action.

Normal

3

Dark green / #360

Informational message. No action required.

Cleared

2

Grey / #eee

This severity is reserved for use in alarms to indicate that an alarm describes a self-clearing error condition has been corrected and service is restored. This severity should never be used in event definitions. Please use "Normal" severity for events that clear an alarm.

Indeterminate

1

Light green / #990

No Severity could be associated with this event.

If a Business Service changes its Operational Status an OpenNMS event of the type uei.opennms.org/bsm/serviceOperationalStatusChanged is generated and sent to the OpenNMS Event Bus. In case the Operational Status changed from Normal to a higher Severity an Event of the type uei.opennms.org/bsm/serviceProblem is generated and has the Severity of the BS. When the BS goes back to no